The Denarius denomination — Variants: Denarius Serratus
The denarius was a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War. It became the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly debased in weight and silver content until its replacement by the double denarius, called the antoninianus, early in the 3rd century AD. From the late 2nd to early 1st century BC, the regular Denarius denomination was occasionally struck with serrated edges.

The word denarius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was 10 asses, although in the middle of the 2nd century BC it was recalibrated so that it was now worth sixteen asses or four sestertii.

It is the origin of several modern words such as the currency name dinar; it is also the origin for the common noun for money in Italian ('denaro'), in Slovene ('denar'), in Portuguese ('dinheiro'), and in Spanish ('dinero').
Denarius|Denarius Serratus
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/edited5.png
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 81 BC in Rome
Obverse: Veiled head of Hispania right, HISPAN downward in left field.

Reverse: Togate figure standing left, raising hand, between aquila and fasces. A – POST•A•F – •S•N – ALBIN across fields and in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 4.13 g
"This is one of the Republican types where a moneyer celebrated the achievements of a famous ancestor. According to Crawford, the reverse "Combining a togate figure on one hand with an eagle and the fasces on the other hand, perhaps simply alludes to civilian and military imperium; taken with the obverse type the reference is doubtless to the Spanish command of L. Postumius Albinus"(Crawford, RRC p. 389). The L. Postumius Albinus referenced was an ancestor of this moneyer who was praetor in 180 BC and given the province of Hispania Ulterior after conquering the Vaccaei and Lusitani, and the levying of troops for this campaign. The reverse of the coin probably depicts several key moments in Roman history. Most likely, it commemorates the raising of troops for the Spanish campaign, but may be related to the efforts of Lucius Postumius Albinus that led to Masinissa and Carthaginian victories. It may also commemorate the Roman expedition against Perseus in the Macedonian war. This denarius inspired the denarius of Hostilius Saserna, struck in 48 BC, publicizing Roman intervention in Gaul"

Provenance: CNG 106 (13 September 2017), lot 651. Ex Deyo Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012), lot 1334. Stack’s (9 December 1992), lot 3177.
Crawford 372/2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/A_Postumius_Albinus.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 81 BC in Sardinia
Obverse: draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above

Reverse: togate figure standing left before flaming altar, holding sprinkler over sacrificial bull, all on stone platform, A·POST ·A·F S·N·(AL)BIN

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.7 g

According story described by Livy: in Sabina a cattle of admirable size and beauty was born. Animal was sacrificed and his skull (bucranium) was placed in temple of Diana where it commemorate this wonder. The event was considered to be a prophetic sign that town whose citizen sacrifice the animal will rule. Before battle at Regillius Lake Roman citizen (Postumius' ancestor) took the cattle and sacrificed it in the temple of Diana on Aventine.

Crawford 372/1, SRCV I 296, Sydenham 745, RSC I Postumia 7
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/A_Postumius_Albinus_Hispan.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 81 BC in Sardinia
Obverse: veiled head of Hispania right, HISPAN

Reverse: togate figure standing left, extending hand toward legionary eagle right; fasces with axe right A· / (AL)BIN / N·S· / POST·A·F

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.8 g

Refers to the praetorship of L. Postumius Albinus over Spain and his successful expeditions against the Vaccaei and Lusitani, and the levying of troops for this campaign.

Crawford 372/2, Sydenham 746, RSC I Postumia 8, BMCRR I Rome 2839, SRCV I 297
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1661_A._Postumius_Albinus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 92 (96)BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed and draped head of Diana right, wearing earring and necklace, bow and quiver over shoulder; ROMA

Reverse: 3 horsmen galloping left (A. Postumius Albus Regillensis); fallen enemy and two standards in front of them; A·(AL)BINVS·S·F

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 335/9, SRCV I 218, Sydenham 613a, RSC I Postumia 4a
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/A_Spuri.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 142 (139)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet X

Reverse: Luna in biga right holding goad and reins A·SP(VR)I ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.4 g
moneyer's name also could be Spurius or Spurinna
SRCV I 107, Crawford 230/1, Sydenham 448, RSC I Spurilia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/roma160cropedf1.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 157-156 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: Victory, holding goad, driving biga right; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.75 g
Provenance: Bertolami Fine Arts, E-Live Auction 49 (12 November 2017), lot 628.
Crawford 197/1a
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/roma52.22.png
An AR Denarius struck 210-209 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 3 H
Weight: 3.86 g
From Brinkman-Debernardi group RRC 53 Rearing Horses Group 1 where they state:

“This variety is believed to be one of the earliest issues of 53/2 based on its consistent presence (though in small numbers) in early hoards where contents included 53/2 examples. It is nearly always found with a loop under the visor, believed to be an attribute of Sicilian origin. There are no symboled siblings for this group.”

Obverse: There is usually a small loop under the visor in front of the forehead. The loop is often discretely represented as a small lump, other times it is clearly a loop.Tufts at the back of the helmet are very small and close together.

Reverse: More so than any other variety in this issue, the horses appear to be rearing up, rather than galloping forward, particularly the far horse, with forelegs farther above the exergue than on other varieties. The legend ROMA is in a trapezoidal frame. Cape style is Flag-like or Waving. There is nearly always a pointed horse's tail visible between the legs. The horses and riders appear rather small and distant, compared to other varieties.

Exceptions: There are rare examples that are clearly of this style but with horses that are galloping broadly forward rather than rearing up."

Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 408 (25 October 2017), lot 368, from the Andrew McCabe Collection. Ex Vecchi 13 (4 September 1998), lot 631.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 1)
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/127.-1.1.png
An AR Denarius struck 208-205 BC in Italia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; below horses, female head right; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.76 g
"In Essays Witschonke, Andrew McCabe reported on a hoard of cut denarii that contained second Punic war types as well as VAR and QLC types, but missed the types from Crawford 112 through 124. This suggests that the VAR and QLC types, and by extension this female head type to which they appear stylistically related, should be dated within the second Punic war period, likely to around 206-205 BC."

Provenance: Naville Numismatics, Auction 42 (22 July 2018), lot 392.
Crawford 127/1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Croped_-_Copy-3.png
An AR Denarius struck 179-170 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: Luna in prancing biga right; below, fly and ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.85 g
Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 432 (14 November 2018) lot 226, from the Andrew McCabe Collection, purchased from Germania Inferior in 2015. Ex Bertolami fine arts, Auction 15 (27 April 2015), lot 255.
Crawford 159/2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/roma4.png
An AR Denarius struck 210-206 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.65 g
Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 433 (28 November 2018), lot 240.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 4)
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/edited8002.png
An Fourree Denarius struck After 206 BC in Uncertain
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 19.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.42 g
No notes for this coin
Imitating Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 9)
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/romaedited.png
An AR Denarius struck 209 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.36 g
Provenance: Ex Ahlström auktion 66 (9 November 2002), lot 1173.
Sibling to the "Spearhead series", RRC 88/2.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 5)
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/740_299_triga.JPG
An AR Denarius struck 109 (111-110)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; circle in triangle behind

Reverse: victory in triga right holding reins T·(MAL)·A·P CL·Q·(VR)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
Joint coinage of three monetal triumvirs Ap. Claudius Pulcher?, T. Manlius Macinus, Q. Urbinius? Names of three moneyers are still mystery, Appius Clausius, T. Mallius, and Q. Urbanus are other possibilities. Triga is found only on the denaries of the Naevia family except coins of these three moneyers. Triga commemorates three of the persons who were monetal triumvirs in the second century BC. Cavedoni suggests that the triangle on the obverse may symbolize the same individuals. In this case the circle within that figure may represent a coin?
Crawford 299/1b; Sydenham 570a; Mallia 2; BM 1843,0116.505
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Aburius_Gem.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 134 BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of Roma right GEM (XVI)

Reverse: Mars in quadriga right holding trophy and reins, shield, spear C·(AB)(VR)I ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.92 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 244/1, Sydenham 490, BMCRR I Rome 999, RSC I Aburia 1, SRCV I 121
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/AlliaCroped-2.png
An AR Denarius struck 92 BC in Rome
Obverse: Diademed female head right(Diana?); BALA downwards to left; R (control mark) below chin.

Reverse: Diana in a biga of stags to right; with quiver over shoulder and holding sceptre and reins in left hand and torch in right; grasshopper below stags, C•ALLI in exergue; all within laurel wreath.

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.88 g
This moneyer is not otherwise known.

"In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, the moon and childbirth, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. Oak groves were especially sacred to her. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy. In myth, Diana was born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry."

Provenance: e-Bay sale (November 2017).
Crawford 336/1b
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1517_C_Allius_Bala.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 93 (92)BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed and draped head Diana right wearing earring and necklace; BALA

Reverse: Diana in biga of stags holding torch and scepter in right hand and reins in left hand; below grasshopper right; C•ALLI

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 336/1b var., Sydenham 595, RSC I Aelia 4, SRCV I 221
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 82-81 BC in Military Mint | Narbonensis
Obverse: diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below C·ANNI·T·F·T·N · PRO·COS·EX·S·C·

Reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins, Q / L·FABI·L·F·HISP

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.7 g
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis, mint in north Italy. Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated. "An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death. A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation. In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Crawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/antestiiiicroped33-1.png
An AR Denarius struck 146 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right, C•ANTESTI upwards to left, X (mark of value) below chin.

Reverse: The Dioscuri galloping right; below, puppy right with both fore-feet raised; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 3.71 g
Provenance: Bertolami Fine Arts, E-Live Auction 49 (12 November 2017), lot 635.
Crawford 219/1e
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Antesius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 147 (146)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; dog in left field; X

Reverse: Dioscuri right riding on horses, stars over pilei, each holding spear reins; C·(ANTE)STI / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
Moneyer's ancestor was supposedly rescued from shipwreck thanks to persistently barking dog. For that reason dog appears on every issue of this moneyer. Moneyer's family came from an ancient town Gabii in Latium.
Crawford 219/01a
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Piso_Frugi.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 64 (61)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, =

Reverse: naked horseman galloping right, holding palm branch and reins dagger? in exergue, C·PISO L F FRVGI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 408/1b, RSC I Calpurnia 24, Sydenham 851, SRCV I 348
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1335_266_C._Cassius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 130 (126)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, urn behind; (XVI)

Reverse: Libertas in quadriga right holding pileus, scepter and reins; C·CASSI / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 266/1, Sydenham 502, BMCRR Rome 1032, RSC I Cassia 1, SRCV I 142
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1528_C_Pulcher.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 108 (110/109)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet

Reverse: Victory in biga right holding reins in both hands; C·PVLCHER

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 300/1, SRCV I 177, RSC I Claudia 1, Sydenham 569
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Caldus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 101 (104)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma left wearing winged helmet

Reverse: Victory in biga left CALD G

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.9 g

Moneyer was consul in 94 BC. In 107 BC, he was elected tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, which ordained that in the courts of justice the votes should be given by means of tables in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 BC, and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. This is represented by standard on the obverse along with emblem of the conquered town Clunia.

Crawford 318/1b, RSC I Coelia 3, Sydenham 582a, SRCV I 196 var.
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cloelius_Caldus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 52 (51)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Coelius Caldus (moneyer's grandfather) right; standard inscribed HIS (Hispania) behind, standard in the form of a boar (emblem of of Clunia, Hispania) in front, C·COEL·CALDVS / COS

Reverse: statue of god seated left between two trophies of arms, all on a high lectisternium with front inscribed L·CALDVS / VII·(VIR)·EP(VL) (Lucius Caldus Septemvir Epulo), C·CALDVS on left, IMP·(AV)·X (Imperator Augur Decemvir) on right, C(ALD)VS III VIR below

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
Scarce. Coin commemorates three moneyer's ancestors. The first, moneyer's grandfather C. Coelius Caldus, was consul in 94 BC. In 107 BC, he was elected tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, requiring a secret ballot to determine the verdict in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 BC, and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. This is represented by standard on the obverse along with emblem of the conquered town Clunia. He was also moneyer in 104 BC. The second, L. Coelius Caldus, was member of septemviri epulones who prepared lectisternium - propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses (depicted on the reverse). He was responsible for sacrificial feast (epulare sacrificium) during Plebeian games (Ludi Plebeii) in Rome. The third, C. Coelius Caldus, was augur, member of decemviri sacris faciundis, and governor who gained the title Imperator. The trophies on the reverse commemorates his military campains.
Crawford 437/2a, Sydenham 894, RSC I Coelia 7, BMCRR II 3837, SRCV I 404
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Considius_Nonianus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 60? (56)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate draped bust of Venus Erycina right, wearing stephane, C·CONSIDI·NONIANI S·C

Reverse: tetrastyle temple of Venus Erycina on the top of mount Eryx, Porta Collina (place of Sulla's great victory)*, ERVC

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.6 g
scarce. *The temple of Venus Erycina on the top of mountain in the west of Sicily should had been founded by Aeneas and historian Polybios described it as the greatest and most splendid of all sacred places of Sicily. Venus Erycina was patroness of sex and protector of prostitutes. Chosen designe of coin indicates moneyer's loyalty to Pompey who competed for Venus' favour with Caesar. Pompey claimed he inherited Venus' favour from Sulla who worshipped this goddes. According Harlan temple is only structure in the background whereas in the foreground there is Colline Gate, place of Sulla's famous victory. Roman temple of Venus Erycina stood at Quirinal near Colline Gate.
Crawford 424/1, Sydenham 888, RSC I Considia 1b
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/cupid-1.png
An AR Denarius struck 75 BC in Rome
Obverse: Winged bust of Cupid right; bow and quiver of arrows over shoulder; MAXSVMVS downwards in left field.

Reverse: Distyle temple with two facing statues within; Jupiter, to the left, holding staff, and Libertas, on the right, holding pileus. Above pediment, thunderbolt and pileus. VIII (control mark) in left field; CN•N in right field; C•EGNATIVS•CN•F in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.98 g
"The Egnatii were of Samnite origin, and at least some of them had settled at Teanum. At the end of the Social War, the greater part of these appear to have relocated to Rome, where two of them were admitted into the senate, though a branch of the family seems to have remained at Teanum.

This moneyer, a man of somewhat disreputable character, was admitted into the Roman senate, but was subsequently expelled by the censors. Not much more is known about him.

In Catullus love poetry, Cupid and Venus are constantly paired as the patrons of all sensual love and they have maintained the same symbolism even today for people who no longer worship the gods. The bust of Cupid so prominently placed on the obverse of Egnatius coin, depicted with his cherub-like features and armed with a bow whose arrows only wound one's heart with passion and desire, but never kill, is symbolic of peace and the pleasure it brings.

This issue is the only surviving record of the Temple of Jupiter Libertas. The temple of Libertas was built on the Aventine hill ca 246 B.C by the plebeian aediles Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Gaius Fundanius. The money to finance the erection of the temple came from fines. The main contributor was Claudia, the sister of the consul of 249 B.C, Publius Claudius Pulcher. On an occasion when she found it hard to make her way through the crowded streets of Rome she exclaimed that she wished her brother was still alive to lose another fleet for the Romans for that would thin out the population a little. That insensitive comment cost her 25.000 asses.

In the course of time the temple came to be better known as the temple of Jupiter Libertas. The original connection between the two deities may be found in the belief that Libertas was the daughter of Jupiter and Juno. Egnatius depiction of the temple shows its true bipartite nature at that time. It was restored by Augustus as part of his grand renovation of Rome.”

Provenance: Purchased from Moruzzi Numismatica (5 March 2018). Ex Varesi 63 (26 November 2013), lot 46.
Crawford 391/2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cn._Egnatius_Cn._f._Cn._n._Maxsumus_(Obv_and_Rev).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 75 BC in Rome
Obverse: Winged bust of Cupid right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; behind, MAXSVMVS downwards

Reverse: Distyle temple with figures of draped Jupiter and Libertas standing facing within; C EGNATIVS CN F below, CN N upwards to right, control numeral (VIII) to left

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 2 H
Weight: 3.96 g
No notes for this coin
RSC Egnatia 3; Crawford 391/2; Sear 325
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Fabius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 97 (102)BC in Rome
Obverse: veiled turreted bust of Cybele right dot over Λ

Reverse: Victory in biga right, holding goad and reins; heron right C·FABI·C·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
Heron on the reverse refers to the foundation of colonia Ardea in 442 BC when M. Fabius Vibulianus was consul. This is supported by turreted Cybele on the obverse. Moneyer was praetor in 84 BC.
Crawford 322/1a, RSC I Fabia 15, Sydenham 589, SRCV I 200 var.; RR1 1585, p.222; Ghey, Leins & Crawford 2010 322.1.7
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Fonteius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 112 (114-113)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate Janiform heads of Dioscuri; T _ (XVI)

Reverse: war galley left, acrostolium, ram and deck house at prow, three sailors and five oars amidships; deck house, gubernator, rudder, and apluster at stern; C·FO(NT) / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
"The janiform head has been identified as the Dioscuri, because the Fonteia gens came from Tusculum, the religious center of the cult of Castor and Pollux. The reverse depicts the arrival by sea of Telegonus' the son of Odysseus and Circe, and the mythological founder of Tusculum." ForumAncientCoins note Moneyer probably served as legate in 91 BC at the beginning of Civil war and was killed by rebels in Asculum.
Crawford 290/1, SRCV I 167, RSC I Fonteia 1, Sydenham 555
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Roma_Auction_Pic_(Obv_and_Rev)(9).JPG
An AR Denarius struck 114-113 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate, janiform heads of the Dioscuri, E to left and mark of value to right

Reverse: Galley left with three rowers, gubernator at stern; C•FONT above, ROMA below

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.7 g
This coin is currently consigned to Roma's E-sale 64. In his oration, Pro Fonteio, Cicero mentions that the Fonteii came originally from Tusculum, of which municipium it was one of the most distinguished families. The Fonteii claimed descent from Fontus, the son of Janus. A two-faced head appears on a coin of Gaius Fonteius, which Jean Foy Vaillant and others suppose to be the head of Fontus or Janus, in reference to this tradition. But as Janus is always represented in later times with a beard, Eckhel maintains that the two heads refer to the Dioscuri, who were worshipped at Tusculum with especial honours, and who may be regarded as the Di Penates of the gens. Michael Crawford likewise favours a depiction of the Dioscuri as they appear on other coins of the Fonteii. The galley on the reverse meanwhile is a reference to Telegonus, son of Ulysses and according to myth the founder of Tusculum
Crawford 290/1; RSC Fonteia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Fundanius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 98 (101)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet ·C

Reverse: Gaius Marius with his son as rider riding in triumphal quadriga right. Gaius Marius holds staff and laurel branch, rider holds laurel branch and reins. Q C·FVNDAN

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
Moneyer depicts triumph of Gaius Marius after the victory over Cimbri, Ambrones and Teutons in the battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC and in the battle of Vercelli in 101 BC. This is the first Roman issue depicting living person. Moneyer struck these coins as Questor.
Crawford 326/1, SRCV I 204, Sydenham 583, RSC I Fundania 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/GarOgulVer.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 86 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Apollo right

Reverse: Jupiter in Quadriga right, Holding reins and thunderbolt

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 3 H
Weight: 3.37 g
Clipped
Cr. 350A/2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Gargonius,_Ogulnius_and_Vergilius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 86 BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo or Vejovis right, thunderbolt below

Reverse: Jupiter in quadriga right, holding thunderbolt and reins

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 350a/2, SRCV I 266, RSC I 226, Sydenham 723
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Hosidius_Geta.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 65 (68)BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed and draped bust of Diana, bow and quiver over shoulder III VIR / GETA

Reverse: attacked boar right, spear in shoulder, hound below, C HOSIDI C F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.6 g
"Oineus, king of Kalydon in Aitolia, once had feasted the gods at an harvest festival but forgotten to butcher an animal for Artemis. The goddess was enraged and sent a big boar who wasted the fertile fields of the king. Oineus called for help and from all parts of Greece the heroes came to help him. There were the Curetes from Pleuron, the brothers of Althaia, the wife of Oineus. There were the Dioscurs Kastor and Polydeikes and their Messenian cousins Idas and Lynkeus. Theseus came from Athens, Iphikles, half-brother of Herakles, came from Thebens, Iason, Admetos, Peirithos, Peleus and Eurytion came from Thessalia, Telamon from Salamis, Amphiaraos from Argos, Ankaios and Atalante from Arcadia and much more. Herakles was prevented by his labours. On top of the heroes stood Meleagros, the son of Oineus and Althaia. The hunt for the Calydonean boar ended very disastrous. Many heroes lost their lifes. Ankaios was the first killed by the boar. Peleus accidentally hit his father-in-law Eurytion with his spear. A second hunter too was killed by the boar. The big catastrophe happened at the 6th day of the hunt. On this day Atalanta hit the boar with her arrow and Meleagros gave him the deathblow. Then he awarded head and skin of the boar to Atalante. But his uncles, brother of his mother Althaia, didn't tolerate that. They insisted on the rights of their clan. A dispute occured, they snatched the trophies from Atalante and then a fight began in which Meleagros slew his uncles. When Meleagros was born the fates predicted that he will live only as long as the log in the oven. Althaia pulled it out of the fire and hid it in a secret place. When she heard of the death of her brothers she enraged, got the log and threw it in the fire. When it was burnt Meleagros break down dead when he was dissecting the boar." - Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Kestner 3317; BMCRR I Rome 3389; RSC I Hosidia 1, SRCV I 346
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Auction_Pic_(Obv_and_Rev)(14).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 68 BC in Rome
Obverse: Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring, and necklace, and with bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right.

Reverse: The Calydonian boar standing right, it’s front legs thrust forward, pierced through by a spear and harried by a hound below; C•HOSIDI•C•F in exergue.

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.98 g
Although the significance of the type to the moneyer who caused it to be struck remains a mystery, the classical myth which it depicts and the lesson it carried regarding the consequences of neglecting the Gods would have been a message well known to and easily recognised by the ancient Romans. The Calydonian boar was sent by Diana (or Artemis as she was called by the Greeks) to ravage the lands of Calydon in Aetolia, where the king Oeneus had not afforded her the proper rites and respect. With the citizens cowering behind city walls, a hunt was organised by the king in which the lone female hunter, Atalanta, was the first to draw blood when she pierced the gigantic boar through its side with her spear, as depicted in this fine reverse type. The coin is easily one of my favourites of the Republican era.
Crawford 407/2; RSC Hosidia 1; Sear 346
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Junius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 155-150 (149)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet X

Reverse: Dioscuri on horses riding right holding spears reins; stars over their pilei C·IVNI·C·F ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 210/01
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Republika_Licinius_xxx.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 84 BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed bust of Vejovis left, from behind, hurling thunderbolt

Reverse: Minerva in quadriga right holding javelin and reins, shield C·LICINIUS·L·F / MACER

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.66 g
Moneyer was an official and annalist of ancient Rome. He became tribune in 73 BC and praetor in 68, but in 66 Cicero succeeded in convicting him of bribery and extortion, upon which Macer committed suicide. He wrote a history of Rome, in 16 books which is now lost. Livy casts doubt on Macer's reliability, suggesting that he misrepresented events in order to glorify the Licinii, but notes that he quotes original sources, such as the Linen Rolls. (wikipedia)
Crawford 354/1, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Sydenham 732
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Maianus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 155-150 (153)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of Roma right X

Reverse: Victory in biga right holding whip and reins C. (MA)I(AN)I ROMA

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.39 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 203/1a, SRCV I 82, RSC I Maiania 1, Banti Maiania 2
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/malleoluscroped1.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 96 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Mars right; mallet above, star below chin

Reverse: Heroic figure standing left, foot on cuirass, holding spear and leaning on tabella divided into two compartments, CMA below, trophy in left field.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.6 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 335/3g, Sydenham 615c, Poblicia 7.
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Poblicius_Malleolus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 92 (96)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of Mars right, hammer above; (XVI)

Reverse: warrior standing half left, foot on cuirass, holding spear; trophy left, grasshopper on prow right; C·M(AL)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 335/3d; Sydenham 615a; Poblicia 6
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1656_Limetan.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 83 (82)BC in Praeneste | Rome
Obverse: draped bust of Mercury right wearing winged petasus caduceus behind

Reverse: Ulysses walking right, holding staff, dog Argus left; C·MAMIL__LIME(TA)N

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 362/1, SRCV I 282, Sydenham 741, RSC I Mamilia 6
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1312_346_Censorinus.JPG
An AR Denarius struck 88 BC in Rome
Obverse: jugate heads of bearded Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius right

Reverse: Desultor right riding two horses, wearing conical cap, holding whip; XXXIII / C·CENSO

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 346/1b, SRCV I 256, Sydenham 713b, RSC I Marcia 18
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Marius_Capito.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 82 (81)BC in Praeneste
Obverse: draped bust of Ceres with corn wreath right, running horse to the right, CAPIT.CXXXV

Reverse: ploughman conducting yoke of two oxen, CXXXV / C·MARI·C·F / S·C

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 4.06 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 378/1c, SRCV I 300, Sydenham 744b, RSC I Maria 9
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/776_C._Minucius_Augurinus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 134 (135)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet ROMA X

Reverse: Ionic column surmounted by statue; at base, two stalks of grain; on left, L. Minucius Augurinus standing right, holding patera, foot on modius; on right, M. Minucius Faesus standing left, holding lituus. C·A_VG

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.7 g
Reverse depicts a commemorative bronze column - Columna Minucia which was erected in front of gate - Porta Trigemina in memory of L. Minucius Augurinus who as Praefectus Annonae supplied Rome with grain during famine in 439 BC. On the right there is Marcus Minucius Faestus who was elected Augur as the first plebeian in 300 BC.
Crawford 242/1, SRCV I 119, Sydenham 463, RSC I Minucia 3,
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1301_382_Naevius.JPG
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 79 BC in Sardinia
Obverse: diademed head of Venus right; S·C

Reverse: Victory right in triga holding reins; XXXIII / C·N(AE)·B(AL)B

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
ex Naumann ex Forum Ancient Coins
Crawford 382/1b, SRCV I 309, RSC I Naevia 6, Sydenham 769b, BMCRR Rome 2937 var. (XXXIIII)
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Balbus_(Obv_and_Rev)_2.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 79 BC in Rome
Obverse: Diademed head of Venus right; SC behind, E below chin

Reverse: Victory in triga right; C NÆ BALB in exergue

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 3.91 g
According to Sear, this type was part of a large output of coinage specially authorised by decree of the Senate, and likely necessitated by the extensive military operations during the dictatorship of Sulla. The moneyer, C. Naevius Balbus, was a keen supporter of Sulla, and the coin was likely minted in commemoration of the dictators victory over Mithridates VI of Pontus around six years earlier. Interestingly, the surname Balbus apparently signified one who stammers. The coin obverse features Venus, who was the patron deity of Sulla. The reverse features a three-horse chariot (a ‘triga’), which was fairly uncommon on the Republican coinage...the two-horse ‘biga’ or four-horse ‘quadriga’ being portrayed on many more types. The coin has a serrated edge, which was fairly common on Republican coins during this period. The purpose of the serration has been debated by scholars. Some have suggested it may have served a practical purpose such as forgery prevention. More recently it has been put forward, tentatively, that the serrated edges were purely a decorative feature.
RSC Naevia 6b; Crawford 382/1A; Sear 309
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Roma_Auction_Pic_(Obv_and_Rev)(13).JPG
An AR Denarius struck 83 BC in Rome
Obverse: Diademed bust of Venus right; CVII behind, C•NORBANVS below

Reverse: Corn ear, fasces and caduceus

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 3.93 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 357/1a; RSC Norbana 2; Sear 278
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Norbanus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 84 (83)BC in Sicily | Bruttium
Obverse: diademed head of Venus right, wearing single drop earring and pearl necklace CLIII C·NORBANVS

Reverse: grain ear, fasces and caduceus

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
Moneyer's family came from Volscian town Norba. Reverse commemorates activity of elder C. Norbanus, moneyer's father, during the Social War, when he raised troops, organized a fleet, and provisioned the town of Rhegium. He, as a consul, led popular forces and was defeated by Sulla in 83 BC.
Crawford 357/1b, RSC I Norbana 2, Sydenham 739, BMCRR I Rome 2810, SRCV I 278
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Plutius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 124 (121)BC in Sardinia | Rome
Obverse: helmet head of Roma right; X

Reverse: Dioscuri riding on horses right, holding spear; C·PLVTI / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
the last or second last issue with Dioscuri
Crawford 278/1, SRCV I 153, Sydenham 410, RSC I Plautia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/PostumiaCroped(1).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 73 BC in Rome
Obverse: Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.

Reverse: Hound running right; spear below, C•POSTVMI and TA monogram in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.92 g
"It is possible that the monogram found in the exergue of the reverse on this coin may resolve as Tatius. On coins of both L. Titurius Sabinus and T. Vettius Sabinus the same monogram occurs in conjunction with the head of the Sabine king, Tatius, but the surname TA or AT is otherwise unknown for the Postumia gens. It is possible that the Postumii, undoubtedly one of Rome's most ancient families, claimed descent from the Sabine king."

Provenance: Tauler & Fau Floor Auction 20, (28 November, 2018), lot 112.
Crawford 394/1a
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1443_C_Postumius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 73 (74)BC in Rome
Obverse: draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder

Reverse: hound bounding right, hunting spear below; C·POSTVMI / (TA)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 394/1a, RSC I Postumia 9, Sydenham 785, SRCV I 330
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Pobliciasmallcropped1.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 80 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted and draped bust of Roma right; K (control mark) above; ROMA downwards in left field.

Reverse: Hercules standing left, strangling Nemean Lion; club at his feet, K (control mark) above; bow and arrows in left field; C•POBLICI•Q•F upwards in right field.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 3.9 g
Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 412 (17 January 2018), lot 406. Ex Bertolami 24 (22 June 2016), lot 468.
Crawford 380/1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1373_380-1_Poblicius.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 80 BC in Praeneste | Rome
Obverse: draped bust of Roma right wearing Phrygian helmet with side feathers; ROMA / P

Reverse: naked Hercules left strangling Nemean lion; bow with arrows in quiver left, club below; C·POBLICI·Q·F / P

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 380/1, SRCV I 308, Sydenham 768, RSC I Poblicia 9
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C_Renius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 144 (138)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet X

Reverse: Juno Caprotina in biga of goats right holding whip, scepter and reins C·RENI ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
Reverse refers to Lanuvium where moneyer's family came from and where the sanctuary of Juno was situated.
Crawford 231/1, SRCV I 108, Sydenham 432, RSC I Renia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1663_C._Servilius_C.f..jpg
An AR Denarius struck 54 (57)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Flora right wreathed with flower; lituus left; FLOR(AL)·PRI(MV)S

Reverse: Two soldiers facing each other, each holding shield and sword upright; C·F C·SE(RVE)IL·

Diameter: 17.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.7 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 423/1, SRCV I 380, Crawford 423/1, Sydenham 890, RSC I Servilia 15
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Servilius_M.f..jpg
An Fourree Denarius struck 137 (136)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmet head of Roma right wreath left (XVI) ROMA

Reverse: the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear C·SERVEILI·M·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.6 g
fouré denarius, unofficial mint It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse and also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1441_C_Servilius_Mf.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 137 (136)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmet head of Roma right, wreath left; (XVI) ROMA

Reverse: the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear; C·SERVEILI·M·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Servilius_M.f_(T).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 136 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, pendant earring and necklace; behind, wreath above star, ROMA below

Reverse: The Dioscuri on horseback rearing in opposing directions, heads facing one another, each holding couched spear; stars above, C•SERVEILI•M•F in exergue

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 4.04 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 239/1; RSC Servilia 1; Sear 116
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1460_C_Servilius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 126 (127)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; lituus left; (XVI) / ROMA

Reverse: Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, consul 202 BC, left fighting a duel on horse, holding spear and shield inscribed with M. Other horseman riding left holding sword and shield; C·SER(VE)IL

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 264/1, SRCV I I 140, Sydenham 483a, RSC I Servilia 6
(60) C. Servilius | M. Caecilius Metellus
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1325_369_Metellus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 82-81 (82-80)BC in Praeneste | Rome
Obverse: head of Apollo right wearing taenia; ROMA__(XVI)

Reverse: Macedonin shield decorated with elephant head right, all within laurel wreath; M·METELLVS·Q·F·

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
restored issue struck under C. Servilius, winter 82-81 BC
Crawford 369/1; Sydenham 719; Caecilia 30
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Sulpicius.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 103 (106)BC in Sardinia | Narbonensis
Obverse: 2 jugate laureate heads of Dii Penates Publici left D · P · P

Reverse: Two soldiers (or Dii Penas Publici) standing facing each other, holding spears and pointing at sow which lies between them C C·SV(LP)ICI·C·F

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.96 g

The Sulpicii came from Lavinium and both sides of coin are related to it. Di Penates Publici were taken from Troy together with Palladium by Aeneas. When Aeneas fled from Troy Helenus, a son of Priamos, has predicted Aeneas, that he would built a new city where a white sow would cast 30 piglets. Aeneas prepared to sacrifice a pregnant white sow he has brought in his ship for this purpose, but the sow escaped and fled 24 stadiums in the inland, layed down under an oak-tree (or ilex-tree) and casted 30 white piglets. Because of that Aeneas knew that this prophecy too became true and he should built a city here. He sacrificed the 30 piglets and erected a shrine at this place. The new city he called Lavinium referring to Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus. The 30 piglets represented 30 years only after which his successors became the real owners of the new land. At the same time story of white sow predicts foundation of another town: River god Tiber speak to Aeneas in a dream: ".... A sow beneath an oak shall lie along, All white herself, and white her thirty young. When thirty rolling years have run their race, Thy son Ascanius, on this empty space, Shall build a royal town, of lasting fame, Which from this omen shall receive the name. ..." Alba Longa was founded just 30 years after Lavinium and so the prophecy was fulfilled here too. The name Alba Longa is said to be derived from the white sow (meaning the long white). So Lavinium was the mothertown of Alba Longa and finely of Rome itself. On the Forum of Lavinium stood a bronze statue of the sow, its body was conserved by the priests in pickle. (Jochen's coins of mythological interests)

Crawford 312/1, RSC I Sulpicia 1, SRCV I 189, Sydenham 572
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Valerius_C.f._Flaccus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 144 (140)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; X

Reverse: Victory in biga right, holding whip and reins; FLAC / C·(VAL)·C·F / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
Moneyer struck coins both with XVI (Cr. 228/1) and X (Cr. 228/2). He was probably grandson of C. Valerius Flaccus praetor in 183 BC and father of C. Valerius Flaccus consul in 93 BC.
Crawford 228/2, SRCV I 104, Sydenham 440, RSC I Valeria 7
(63) C. Vibius Pansa
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Vibius_Pansa.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 89 (90)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right PANSA

Reverse: Minerva in quadriga right holding trophy and reins, spear C·VIBIVS·C·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.96 g
Issue probably celebrates the first victory in Social war.
Crawford 342/5b, RSC I Vibia 2d, Sydenham 684, SRCV I 242
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/C._Vibius_Pansa_C.f.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 48 BC in Rome
Obverse: mask of Pan right, PANSA

Reverse: radiate Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding patera and long scepter, IOVIS·AXVR· C·VIBIVS·C·F·C·N

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
Coin depicts radiated beardless Jupiter Axurus who seems to be simmilar to the Apollo, Sol or Syrian Jupiter Heliopolitanus. His temple complex from the first century BC stood on the cliff above town Terracina which gave to the world the word terrace. Moneyer was adoptive son of C Vibius C.f. Pansa. He became tribune in 51 BC and supported Caesar. In 43 BC he and Aulus Hirtius were sent with two senate armies to attack Marc Antony. Their armies won the battle of Forum Gallorum near Mutina but Hirtius died in the battle and Pansa was mortally wounded so Octavian Caesar became commander of the whole army.
Crawford 449/1a; SRCV I 420; Sydenham 947; RSC I Vibia 18; Sear CRI 20
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/800edited.png
An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate and bearded head of Hercules right.

Reverse: Minerva, helmeted and draped, standing right, holding spear in right hand and Victory in extended left; shield at side, C • VIBIVS downward to right, VARVS downward to left.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.67 g
We know almost nothing about the moneyer apart from his coins. David Sear notes that this is one of the two rare 'types honoring Minerva and Hercules and allude to the forthcoming struggle with the Republican forces led by Brutus and Cassius. The goddess of war, the consort of Jupiter, and the legendary hero are invoked as powerful allies of the Triumvirs in their quest to avenge the murder of Caesar'.

Provenance: Heritage Auctions - Long Beach Expo World & Ancient Coins Signature Auction Session 5 (September 5-9 2019), lot 155. Ex Stack's & Bower's - Coin Galleries: The Numismatic Review and Fixed Price List (May - June, 1960), lot A371.
Crawford 494/37
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cn._Lentulus_Q.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 75 (76-75)BC in Military Mint | Taras
Obverse: diademed bust of Genius Populi Romani right, scepter across shoulder, G·P·R

Reverse: wreathed scepter, globe, rudder, EX S·C / CN·LEN·Q

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.9 g

mint in Spain. Moneyer struck this coin as questor of proconsul Pompey when he was sent to support Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius in lenghty war against Sertorius in Spain. Moneyer became consul in 56 BC.

Probably struck in late 75 BD in Taras or Brundisium, perhaps the fund of choice to pay local shipping contractors to ferry armies across the Adriatic and back
Crawford 393/1a; SRCV I 323; Sydenham 752, RSC I Cornelia 54, Russo RBW 1432
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Blaso.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 112 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted Scipio Africanus head right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet,* monogram above / CN BLASIO CN F before, prow behind.

Reverse: The Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, holding sceptre and thunderbolt, standing facing between Juno and Minerva / Π in field, ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.49 g
Scipio Africanus - Victory over Hannibal. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (235–183 BC), also known as Scipio Africanus and Scipio the Elder, was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him theagnomen Africanus, the nickname "the Roman Hannibal", as well as recognition as one of the finest commanders in military history.
Crawford-296/1d, Cornelia 19.
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Roma_Auction_Pic_(Obv_and_Rev)(25).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 112/111 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Mars right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; CN BLASIO CN F before, XVI monogram above, control symbol (acrostolium?) behind

Reverse: Jupiter standing facing, holding sceptre and thunderbolt, between Juno and Minerva, the latter crowning Jupiter with wreath; palm branch in central field, dolphin in right field, ROMA (divided by eagle) in exergue

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 4.03 g
No notes for this coin
Sydenham 561d; RSC Cornelia 20; Sear 173
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cn_Domitius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 130 (128)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, grain ear left (XVI)

Reverse: Victory in biga right holding wreath and reins, man attacking lion with spear below ROMA CN·DOM

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
Moneyer could be Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus or Cn. Domitius Calvinus according to Crawford and Sear. Ahenobarbus became consul in 96 BC.
Crawford 261/1; Sydenham 514; Domitia 14; Type as RBW 1056
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cn_Fulvius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 117 (117-116)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet ROMA (XVI)

Reverse: Victory in biga right holding wreath and reins C(N F)O(VL) M·C(AL)·Q·(MET)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
M. Calidius, Q. Caecilius Metellus and Cn. Fulvius Joint coinage of three monetals. M. Calidius may be the father of Q. Calidius, praetor 79 BC. If Q·MET really represents Q. Caecilius Metellus, it could be Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, consul 109 BC, or Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos, consul 98 BC. Nothing more is known about Cn. Fulvius.
Crawford 284/1b, RSC I Fulvia 1, Sydenham 539a, SRCV I 160
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Cn_Gel.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 142 (138)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, all within wreath X

Reverse: Mars and Nerio in quadriga right; Mars holding Nerio and shield CN·GEL ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
Reverse depicts the abduction of Sabin goddes Nerio by Mars. Moneyer was most probably historian, author of a history of Rome from the earliest epoch extending at least to the year 145 BC.
Crawford 232/1, SRCV 109, RSC I Gellia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Gn._Lucretius_Trio.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 141 (136)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma left wearing winged helmet; TRIO / X

Reverse: Dioscuri riding on horses right, stars over pilei, holding spear and reins; CN·LVCR / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 237/1a, RSC I Lucretia 1, BMCRR Rome 929, Sydenham 450, SRCV I 114
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/PlanciaCroped(0).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 55 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Diana Planciana(?) right, wearing petasus, CN•PLANCIVS downwards in right field, AED•CVR•S•C downwards in left field.

Reverse: Cretan goat standing right; quiver and bow in left field.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 9 H
Weight: 3.86 g
"Cn. Plancius had a long political career. He first served as propraetor in Africa under A. Torquatus and in 68 BC and under Q. Metellus in Crete. In 62 BC he was a military tribune in the army of C. Antonius in Macedonia and in 56 BC was quaestor of Macedonia.

Cn. Plancius became friends with Cicero during Ciceros exile in Macedonia, and in 55 BC, after being elected to the curule aedileship, was defended by Cicero against charges of electoral corruption. The obverse and reverse types refer to his activities in Macedonia and Crete."

Provenance: Bertolami Fine Arts, E-Live Auction 49 (12 November 2017), lot 774.
Crawford 432/1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Gnaeus_Plancius.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 54 (55)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Macedonia right wearing causia; CN·PLANCIVS / AED·CVR·S·C

Reverse: agrimi standing right, bow and quiver left

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 432/1, SRCV I 396, Sydenham 932, RSC I Plancia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/D._Junius_L.f._Silanus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 91 BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet T

Reverse: Victory in biga galloping right X D·SILANVS·L·F / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 337/3, SRCV I 225, Sydenham 646, RSC I Junia 15
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Untitled(143).jpg
An Fourree Denarius struck 56 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Venus facing right, wearing laurel wreath and diadem; scepter on shoulder; SC behind

Reverse: Three military trophies between capis and lituus; FAVSTVS monogram in exergue

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 1 H
Weight: 2.61 g
This moneyer was the son of the famous Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and his types honor his father
RSC Cornelia 63; Cr. 426/3
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Roma_Pur.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 170-158 BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet X

Reverse: Luna in biga right, crescent above head; murex shell above PVR ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.3 g
Murex shell, from which Purple dye was made, is pun for moneyer's name. Moneyer apparently was son or grandson of Lucius Furius Purpurio, consul 196 BC.
Crawford 187/1, SRCV I 75, Sydenham 424, RSC I Furius 13
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Julius_Caesar_(Obv_and_Rev)_4(0).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 49-48 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue

Reverse: Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf's head), and apex

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 4.12 g
Struck by a military mint travelling with Caesar.
Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49; Sear 1399
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Caesar_elephant.jpg
An AR Denarius struck I 49-VIII 48 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: elephant right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR

Reverse: sacrificial implements - simpulum (laddle), sprinkler, axe, apex (priest's hat)

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 4 g

moving mint (Cisalpine Gaul or Hispania). Oldschool interpretation of iconography is that elephant symbolize powerful Caesar and snake his enemies but this view must be revised. According to Harlan the Caesar's issue is reaction to the Acilius' with Salus holding snake which was in fact struck in 50 BC. Salus with snake represent health of the Republic. "Dio Cassius made it clear that the most vehement enemy of Caesar in the Senate debates of 50 was Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio who put forward the motion that Caesar be declared a public enemy if he did not disband his troops. Caesar said that the Senate was intimated by threats from Pompey’s friends and reluctantly adopted Scipio’s proposal. Caesar put much of the blame for the civil war on Scipio who had become Pompey’s father-in-law in 52 and had shared the consulship with Pompey that year. Recounting the reasons for the civil war, Caesar was careful to avoid blaming Pompey directly and he claimed that Pompey had been led astray and corrupted (depravatum) by Caesar’s enemies who were jealous of his glory, while he himself had always promoted Pompey’s honor and dignity. …….. With a very clever, yet simple, turn on the Pompeian propaganda of Acilius’ coin, the snake has been taken from the hands of Valetudo and trampled by the Metellan elephant. Caesar showed Rome that Metellus Scipio and his supporters were the true threat to the health and safety of the Republic, the true cause of the civil war." Sacrificial implements reminds Caesar as Pontifex Maximus.

Crawford 443/1, RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/749_467_Caesar.JPG
An AR Denarius struck I - IV 46 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: head of Ceres right, grain wreath, DICT·ITER COS·TERT

Reverse: sacrificial implements: simpulum, aspergillum, capis (jug), lituus, AVGVR / PONT·MAX / M

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.7 g

moving mint (Africa or Sicily). Ceres symbolizes Africa as granary of Rome. M on reverse means munus - payment for soldier's service. These coins probably served to pay Caesar's veterans after battle of Thapsus.

Crawford 467/1, SRCV I 1403, RSC I 4
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Julius_Caesar_(Obv_and_Rev).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 47-46 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: Diademed head of Venus right

Reverse: Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.68 g
This issue was probably struck in Africa during Caesar’s campaign against Metellus Pius Scipio and Labienus. The types are purely propagandistic in nature; the obverse depicts Venus, from whom Caesar claimed descent via Iulus, son on the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, who was himself the son of Anchises and Venus. The reverse depicts Aeneas’ flight from the doomed city of Troy, with his elderly father Anchises upon his shoulder. As seen in the first books of the Aeneid, Aeneas is one of the few Trojans who were not killed in battle or enslaved when Troy fell. The city having been sacked by the Greeks, Aeneas, after being commanded by the gods to flee, gathered a group, collectively known as the Aeneads, who then travelled to Italy and became progenitors of the Roman people.
Crawford 458/1; RSC 12; Sear 1402
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/download.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 49 - 48 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent. CAESAR in exergue

Reverse: Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf's head), and apex.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.82 g
Military mint traveling with Caesar.
Crawford 443/1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Paulus_Lepidus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 67 (62)BC in Rome
Obverse: Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA

Reverse: L. Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left, TER / PAVLLVS

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.84 g
On reverse scene moneyer commemorates his ancestor L. Aemilius Paullus who had defeated Macedonian king Perseus in the battle of Pydna. TER stands for tertius since it was his third triumph. Moneyer was elected consul in 50 BC and was bribed by Julius Caesar who need his support. Paullus had used money to reconstruction of basilica Aemilia on Roman Forum. Paullus opposed the second triumvirate and his brother Marcus Aemilius Lepidus order his death but he managed to escape and join Brutus. After Brutus' defeat he was pardoned and spend his remaining years at Miletus.
Crawford 415/1, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Sydenham 926
(84) L. | C. Memmius L.f. Gal.
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1477_L_C_Memius_Lf_Gal.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 87 BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Saturn left; harpa left; EX·S·C / ::A

Reverse: Venus in slow biga right, holding staff and reins; above Cupid flying left, holding wreath; L·C·MEMIES·L·F / GAL

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 349/1, Sydenham 712, RSC I Memmia 8, SRCV I 262, RBW Collection 1328 var. (control), BMCRR I Rome 2421 ff. Var
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/L._Antestius_Gragulus_(Obv_and_Rev_2)(0).jpg
An AR Denarius struck 136 BC in Rome
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right, XVI monogram before, GRAG behind

Reverse: Jupiter in quadriga right, holding reins, thunderbolt and sceptre; L•ANTES below, ROMA in exergue

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 3.93 g
This is the first appearance of the XVI monogram (below the chin and resembling a star) on the denarius.
Crawford 238/1; RSC Antestia 9; Sear 115
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/L._Antestius_Gragulus.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 138 (136)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; GRAG_(XVI)

Reverse: Jupiter in quadriga right, horling thunderbolt and holding scepter and reins; L·A(NTE)S / ROMA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 238/1, Sydenham 451, RSC I Antestia 9, BMCRR Rome 976, SRCV I 115
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Saturninus_P.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 101 (104)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma left wearing winged helmet

Reverse: Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins, P with dot above* and to the left L·SATVRN

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.66 g
*According Richard Schaefer it's the first known example of these dies. Dies differ from ·P thus there, most probably, is dot above P although unfortunately off flan. As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Saturninus_T.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 101 (104)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma left wearing winged helmet

Reverse: Saturn in quadriga right holding harpa and reins ·T· L·SATVRN

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.44 g
As quaestor Saturninus superintended the imports of grain at Ostia, but had been removed by the Roman Senate (an unusual proceeding), and replaced by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, one of the chief members of the Optimates. Standard view is that injustice of his dismissal drove him into the arms of the Populares. In 103 BC he was elected tribune. Marius, on his return to Rome after his victory over the Cimbri, finding himself isolated in the senate, entered into a compact with Saturninus and his ally Gaius Servilius Glaucia, and the three formed a kind of triumvirate, supported by the veterans of Marius and many of the common people. By the aid of bribery and assassination Marius was elected (100 BC) consul for the sixth time, Glaucia praetor, and Saturninus tribune for the second time. Marius, finding himself overshadowed by his colleagues and compromised by their excesses, thought seriously of breaking with them, and Saturninus and Glaucia saw that their only hope of safety lay in their retention of office. Saturninus was elected tribune for the third time for the year beginning December 10, 100, and Glaucia, although at the time praetor and therefore not eligible until after the lapse of 2 years, was a candidate for the consulship. Marcus Antonius Orator was elected without opposition; the other Optimate candidate, Gaius Memmius, who seemed to have the better chance of success, was beaten to death by the hired agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, while the voting was actually going on. This produced a complete revulsion of public feeling. The Senate met on the following day, declared Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies, and called upon Marius to defend the State. Marius had no alternative but to obey. Saturninus, defeated in a pitched battle in the Roman Forum (December 10), took refuge with his followers in the Capitol, where, the water supply having been cut off, they were forced to capitulate. Marius, having assured them that their lives would be spared, removed them to the Curia Hostilia, intending to proceed against them according to law. But the more impetuous members of the aristocratic party climbed onto the roof, stripped off the tiles, and stoned Saturninus and many others to death. Glaucia, who had escaped into a house, was dragged out and killed. (wikipedia)
Crawford 317/3a, SRCV I 193, Sydenham 578, RSC I Appuleia 1
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1336_314_Aurelius_Cotta.jpg
An AR Denarius Serratus struck 102 (105)BC in Sardinia | Narbonensis
Obverse: draped bust of Vulcan right wearing pileus; tongs left, all within myrtle wreath; (XVI) / X

Reverse: eagle on thunderbolt right, head left, all within laurel wreath; L·COT

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 314/1b, Sydenham 577, RSC I Aurelia 21
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1317_262_Caecilius.JPG
An AR Denarius struck 130 BC (128 BC) in Rome
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; (XVI)

Reverse: Pax in biga right, holding branch, reins and scepter, elephant head below; ROMA

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 262/1, RSC I Caecilia 38, Sydenham 496, SRCV I 138
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/330,1b_Calpurnius_Piso_Caesoninus,_Servilius_Caepio.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 100 BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Saturn right, harpa left; PISO · CAEPIO· Q

Reverse: two questors seated left between two stalk of grain; AD·FRV·EMV / EX·S·C

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.2 g
This exceptional type was a joint issue of the Quaestor Urbanus (Caepio) and the Quaestor Ostiensis (Piso), struck to finance discounted grain on the initiative of Saturninus (lex frumentaria de semissibus et trientibus = one semis and one triens for modius). Coins were struck by special decree of the Senate (Ad frumentum emundun, ex senatus consulto) in order to fulfill above-mentioned decree.
Crawford 330/1b, SRCV I 210, Sydenham 603a, RSC I Calpurnia 5a
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/pisoCroped2.jpg
An AR Denarius struck 90 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right, trident behind, control mark A below chin.

Reverse: Warrior riding horse right, holding palm frond and reins, above a trident right. L PISO FRUGI and control mark R in two lines below.

Diameter: 19 mm