Byzantine Coins
Byzantine currency consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. This category covers coins struck for the East Roman Empire from Justinian I and until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Early Byzantine coins feature the head of the Emperor, now full face rather than in profile on the obverse, and usually a Christian symbol on the reverse.

In the 10th century, so-called "anonymous folles" were struck instead of the earlier coins depicting the emperor. The anonymous folles featured the bust of Jesus on the obverse and the inscription "XRISTUS/bASILEU/bASILE", which translates to "Christ, King of Kings".
Byzantine
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An AE Follis struck 491-518 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse:

Reverse:

Diameter: 38 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.25 g
No notes for this coin
No references provided for this coin
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An AE Nummus struck 491-498 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: draped, diademed bust right; (illegible letters)

Reverse: Monogram of Anastasius

Diameter: 9 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.06 g
No notes for this coin
BMC 32:128, Wroth 26
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An AR Siliqua struck 530-580 in Constantinopolis?
Obverse: Helmeted, draped, cuirassed bust right,

Reverse: K

Diameter: 14 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.2 g
Anonymous Issue. Ex Cng coin
Vagi 3051; Bendall Type 8c
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An AU Solidus struck 662 - 667 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: Facing busts of Constans and Constantine IV, both draped, with Constans wearing plumed helmet; cross above

Reverse: VICTORIA AЧGЧ Z, cross potent on three steps; at sides, Heraclius and Tiberius standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 4.38 g
NGC Cert: 4284172-002 MS Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5
DOC 30g; MIB 31; Sear 964
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An AE 40 Nummi struck 644-645 AD in an unknown location
Obverse: beardless Constans II facing, holding long cross and globus cruciger; EN TVTO NIKA

Reverse: large M / ANA / NEOϚ / * / E IIII

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
SBCV 1000; D.O. 63.
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An AU Solidus struck 751-775 in Syracuse
Obverse: COIst - LЄO Crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, both wearing clamys; above, cross

Reverse: GNO LЄON PAMЧ Crowned facing bust of Leo III, wearing loros and holding cross in his right hand

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.8 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 15
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An AE Follis struck 1025-1028 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: + ЄMMΛ-HOVHΛ, barred IC XC across field, nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels

Reverse: + IhSЧS/XRISTЧS/bASILЄЧ/bASILЄ· in four lines across field; above and below; ornate As.

Diameter: 29 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 8.29 g
Anonymous, but attributed to Constantine VIII
DOC class A2; SB 1818
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An AE Follis struck 624-625 AD in Thessalonica
Obverse: Martina (his wife) on left, Heraclius in center and Heraclius Constantine (his son) on right, standing facing, all crowned and wearing chlamys and all holding cross on globe

Reverse: Large M, ANNO at left, cross at top, B below, XVI at right, ΘEC in exergue

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.42 g

Byzantine Empire
Heraclius regnal year 16 = 624-625 AD
Second officina in Thessalonica mint

Sear 825
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An AR 1/4 Siliqua struck 610-641 in Ravenna
Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right Text DN ERACLIVS PP AV

Reverse: Cross potent within wreath

Diameter: 6.37 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 0.6 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 281; MIB 156; SB 907
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An AR Hexagram struck an unknown year in Constantinople
Obverse: dd NN hERACLIUS Et hERA CONSt, Heraclius on left and Heraclius Constantine on right, seated facing on double-throne, each holding cross on globe in right hand, small cross above

Reverse: dEUS AdIUtA ROmANIS, Cross-potent on globe above three steps (no field marks)

Diameter: 24 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 6.4 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 795, DO 61, MIB 134
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An AR 1/4 Siliqua struck an unknown year in Ravenna
Obverse: DN HERACLIVS PP AV, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: Cross within raised border or wreath

Diameter: 10 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 0.3 g
No notes for this coin
SB 907, DOC 281, DOC 281
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An AU Tremissis struck 610 - 641 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: dN hЄRACLIЧS PP AVG Heraclius pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: VICTORIA AVÇЧ І Cross potent/ CONOB

Diameter: 17.9 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.45 g
No notes for this coin
Sear Byzantine 786
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An AR 120 nummi - quarter siliqua struck 610-641 in Ravenna
Obverse: D N HERA[CL]IVS P P AV Diademed and draped bust of Heraclius to right

Reverse: Cross potent within wreath

Diameter: 14 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 0.4 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 281. MIB 156. SB 907.
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An AR Stavraton struck 1421/5-1448 in Constantinople
Obverse: IC-XC, Facing bust of Christ, right hand raised, eight dots around surrounding

Reverse: WANHC DECPOTIC O PALEOLOGOC QV XAPITI AVTOKPATOP in two lines around nimbate facing bust of John VIII; dot to left and right.

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
In NGC slab XF
Sear-2563
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An AR Half-Stavraton struck 1421/5-1448 in Constantinople
Obverse: IC-XC, Facing bust of Christ

Reverse: WANHC BACILEVC (or DECPOTIC) Q PALEOLOGOC, Facing bust of emperor

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
in NGC slab choice VF
SB 2565; Grierson 1519; LPC 172, 2; PCPC 349
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An AU Solidus struck Jan. 566 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: D N I - VST - INVS PP AVI, Helmeted bust facing, holding Victory on globe and shield.

Reverse: VICTORI - A AVGGG ? (officina 4) around, CONOB in exergue, Constantinipolis seated facing, head r., holding spear and cross on globe.

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.31 g
No notes for this coin
Berk-59, Hahn-4, Sear-344.
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An AE unit struck 539-540 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, Bust of Justinian wearing helmet and cuirass, facing holding cross on globe and shield; cross to right

Reverse: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year (XIII) to right, officina letter (ϵ) below; CON in exergue

Diameter: 42 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 21.4 g

Byzantine Empire
AE Follis

Minted at the fifth officina in Constantinople during regnal year 13 which corresponds to 539/540 AD (Reigns typically didn't start on January 1st, so there is overlap)

SB 163
(18) Justin | Justinian | Justin II
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An AE 12 nummi struck 518-578 AD in Alexandria
Obverse: Uncertain inscription, Bust facing right wearing diadem, cuirass, and drapery

Reverse: Cross between I and B; AΛEΞ in exergue

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 2.61 g
No notes for this coin
SB 112?
(19) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886-912 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: +LЄOҺ bAS-ILЄVS Rom. Crowned and draped bust facing, holding akakia.

Reverse: +LЄOҺ/ЄҺ ӨЄO ЬA/SILЄVS R/OmЄOҺ in four lines.

Diameter: 25 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.86 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 8; SB 1729
(20) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886-912 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: +LEON bAS-ILEVS ROM, crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

Reverse: +LEOh Eh ΘEO bA-SILEVS R-OMEOh, legend in four lines.

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 5.58 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 1729; DOC 8
(21) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886 - 912 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: +LEON bAS-ILEVS ROM / crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

Reverse: +LEOh Eh ΘEO bA-SILEVS R-OMEOh / legend in four lines

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 7.87 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 1729
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An AU Solidus struck 590-602 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN mAVRC TIb PP AVG, Bust of Maurice facing, wearing plumed helmet, and cuirass, holding cross on globe

Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGI, Angel standing facing, holding long P-headed cross, and cross on globe; CONOB in exergue

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 4.24 g
VICTORIA AVGG="to the Victory of the two Emperors" (referring to himself and his son co-emperor Theodosius)
The I at the end denotes the 10th officina.

Given that Theodosius was not raised as co-emperor until 590, it makes sense to date the coin to his reign in my opinion.

CONOB="Constantinople, 1/72 pound pure gold"
SB 478
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An AE Half-Follis struck 593 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: D N MAVR TIBER PP AV. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield.

Reverse: Large mark of value K; ANNO to left, cross above, X/I to right, A in exergue.

Diameter: 22 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 5.15 g
1st officina. Dated RY 11.
SBV 497; DOC 56a
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An AR Half-Siliqua struck 493-526 in Italia
Obverse: Tiny head left facing Justin I with DIIVΛDƆSVIISIIΛ

Reverse: Chain wreath outer with VICTOII / SRM/ CON

Diameter: 15.4 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1 g

Commonly referred to as Gepids siliqua

Gennari type 4
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An AR unit struck 493-526 in Italia
Obverse: Right facing Justin I very odd bust with legend (…) IΛIII

Reverse: Theoreric monogram no legend

Diameter: 12.5 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0.9 g

Commonly called "Gepids Siliqua"

Gennari monogram 47, R157
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An AR Half-Siliqua struck 493-526 in Italia
Obverse: right facing Anastasius with the text DИANAƧTΛ (…) VƧPΛ

Reverse: Theoderic monogram ИVICΓΛ+NROMΛ

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0.8 g

Commonly referred to as “Gepids siliqua”

No references provided for this coin
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An AR 3/4 Siliqua struck 491-504 in Italia
Obverse: right facing, almost Celtic like profile ANASTASIVSP

Reverse: Gennari monogram 13, MINV+ΛROMΛO

Diameter: 16 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1.5 g

Commonly referred to as “Gepids siliqua”

No references provided for this coin
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An AR Half-Siliqua struck 493-526 in Italia
Obverse: Right facing bust text reads STISSΛNV

Reverse: Theoderic monogram used by Witigis and Baduila Text VΛΛVIT+IIYGNV

Diameter: 14.1 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1 g

Commonly referred to as “Gepids siliqua”

No references provided for this coin
(29) Vandals
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 425-455 in Rome
Obverse: Valentinian III imitation with legend TIIII

Reverse: Cross within wreath

Diameter: 9.5 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0.8 g
No notes for this coin
BMC 182
(30) Vandals
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An AR Half-Siliqua struck 576-565 in Carthage
Obverse: Left facing bust of Justinian II(?) IIVADPSVISTSΛIIΛ

Reverse: Monogram of Justinian II

Diameter: 12.5 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1 g

Commonly referred to as “Gepids siliqua”

No references provided for this coin
(31) Vandals
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An AE Follis struck 527 in Antioch
Obverse: Cuirassed bust right with text DIИIƧIΓΛNOVƧ

Reverse: Large M Star both sides, cross above, no officina letter present, mint mark ANTIX

Diameter: 31 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 14.3 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 213 Prototype?
(32) Vandals | Honorius
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck c. 440-490 AD in Carthage?
Obverse: pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius right; D N HONORI_VS P F AVG

Reverse: Victory facing, head left, holding wreath in each hand; VICTORI_A AVGGG / P / RM

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.1 g
Gaiseric
BMC Vandals, p. 17, 1-3
(33) Vandals | Imitation
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck c. 440-490 AD in Carthage?
Obverse: pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust of Honorius? right

Reverse: Victory facing, head left, holding wreath in each hand; IIIIII / q

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
unofficial