Praeneste - A settlement in Latium
Praeneste is an ancient city about 35 kilometres east of Rome. Early burials show that the site was already occupied in the 8th or 7th century BC. The ancient necropolis lay on a plateau at the foot of the hill below the ancient town.

Its citizens were offered Roman citizenship in 90 BC in the Social War, when concessions had to be made by Rome to cement necessary alliances. In Sulla's second civil war, Gaius Marius the Younger was blockaded in the town by the forces of Sulla (82 BC). When the city was captured, Marius slew himself, the male inhabitants were massacred in cold blood, and a military colony was settled on part of its territory.

Under the Empire the cool breezes of Praeneste made it a favorite summer resort of wealthy Romans, whose villas studded the neighborhood, though they ridiculed the language and the rough manners of the native inhabitants. The poet Horace ranked "cool Praeneste" with Tibur and Baiae as favored resorts. The emperor Augustus stayed in Praeneste, and Tiberius recovered there from a dangerous illness and made it a municipium. The emperor Marcus Aurelius was at Praeneste with his family when his 7-year-old son Verus died.

Modern location: Palestrina, Italy

(1) C. Marius C.f. Capito 82 (81)BC
Obverse: draped bust of Ceres with corn wreath right, running horse to the right, CAPIT.CXXXV
Reverse: ploughman conducting yoke of two oxen, CXXXV / C·MARI·C·F / S·C
Ref: Crawford 378/1c, SRCV I 300, Sydenh...
Obverse: draped bust of Roma right wearing Phrygian helmet with side feathers; ROMA / P
Reverse: naked Hercules left strangling Nemean lion; bow with arrows in quiver left, club below; C·POBLICI·Q·F / P
Ref: Crawford 380/1, SRCV I 308, Sydenha...
Obverse: head of Apollo right wearing taenia; ROMA__(XVI)
Reverse: Macedonin shield decorated with elephant head right, all within laurel wreath; M·METELLVS·Q·F·
Ref: Crawford 369/1; Sydenham 719; Caeci...