Heliopolis - A settlement in Syria
Heliopolis was a Greek city in Syria, which has been continuously inhabitet for at least 8000 years. The settlement's religious, commercial, and strategic importance was minor enough, however, that it is never mentioned in any known Assyrian or Egyptian record.

Following Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in the 330s bc, Heliopolis formed part of the Diadochi kingdoms of Egypt & Syria. It was annexed by the Romans during their eastern wars. The settlers of the Roman colony Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Heliopolitana may have arrived as early as the time of Caesar but were more probably the veterans of the 5th and 8th Legions under Augustus, during which time it hosted a Roman garrison.

It was occupied by the Muslim army in ad 634, in 636, or under Abu ʿUbaidah following the Byzantine defeat at Yarmouk in 637. The ruined temple complex was fortified under the name al-Qala‘ but was sacked with great violence by the Damascene caliph Marwan II in 748, at which time it was dismantled and largely depopulated.

Modern location: Baalbek, Lebanon

(1) Caracalla 215-217 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AVT K M A·_·ANTΩNEINO_C·CEB·
Reverse: eagle facing, head right, wreath in beak, star over lion below; ·ΔHMAPX EΞ·_VΠATOC TO Δ_·
Ref: Prieur 1194