Damascus - A settlement in Syria
Damascus was founded in prehistotic times, but is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Aramaeans, a Semitic people from Mesopotamia, in the 11th century BC.

It flourished as the center of several Aramaic Kingdoms, until conquered by the Assyrians, and later by Alexander III of Macedon. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Damascus became the site of a struggle between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires.

In 64 BC, the Roman general Pompey annexed the western part of Syria. The Romans occupied Damascus and subsequently incorporated it into the league of ten cities known as the Decapolis which themselves were incorporated into the province of Syria and granted autonomy. The city of Damascus was entirely redesigned by the Romans after Pompey conquered the region.

After most of the Syrian countryside was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate during the reign of Caliph Umar, Damascus itself was conquered by the Muslim-Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walid in August - September 634 AD.

Modern location: Damascus, Syria

(1) Caracalla 215-217 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AVT KAI__ANTWNEINOC C_E_B
Reverse: eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, ram's head below; ΔHMAPX_·EΞ VΠATOC TO Δ
Ref: Prieur 1204