Philetaerus King of the Kingdom of Pergamon from 282 BC to 263 BC.
Philetaerus was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia. After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, Philetaerus became embroiled in the struggle for supremacy, called the Wars of the Diadochi. He served first under Antigonus. He then shifted his allegiance to Lysimachus, who, after Antigonus was killed at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, made Philetaerus commander of Pergamon.

Philetaerus served Lysimachus until 282 BC, when he deserted Lysimachus, offering himself and the important fortress of Pergamon, along with its treasury to Seleucus, who subsequently defeated and killed Lysimachus at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. Seleucus himself was killed by Ptolemy Ceraunus, a brother of Arsinoë at Lysimachia a few months later.

Though nominally under Seleucid control, Philetaerus, especially after the death of Seleucus, had considerable autonomy and was able with the help of his considerable wealth to increase his power and influence beyond Pergamon. He never married and, since he was a eunuch, had no children. He adopted his nephew Eumenes I, who succeeded him as ruler of Pergamon, upon his death in 263 BC.
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