Athens — A settlement in Central Greece
Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens.

A centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans.

Athenian coins were struck on the "Attic" standard, with a drachm equaling 4.3 grams of silver. Over time, Athens' plentiful supply of silver from the mines at Laurion and its increasing dominance in trade made this the pre-eminent standard. These coins, known as "owls" because of their central design feature, were also minted to an extremely tight standard of purity and weight.

Modern location: Athens, Greece
(1) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 431-393 BC in Athens
Obverse: head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll

Reverse: owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left; AΘE

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.21 g
No notes for this coin
(Type C), Sear 2526
(2) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 460-404 BC in Athens
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right. Banker’s mark on cheek

Reverse: Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind; all within incuse square

Diameter: 24 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.12 g
No notes for this coin
Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31.
(3) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 286-267 BC in Athens
Obverse: Head of Athena right with eye in profile, wearing crested helmet ornamented with three olive leaves and floral scroll

Reverse: ΑΘΕ / Owl standing right, head facing, to the left an olive sprig and crescent

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.63 g
No notes for this coin
SNG Cop. 64.
(4) Athens
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An AE unit struck 264-267 AD in Athens
Obverse: draped bust of Athena right wearing crested Corinthian helmet

Reverse: Athena Parthenos facing, head left, holding Nike with wreath. Left hand resting on shield set on ground holding spear; AΘHNA_IΩN

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
BMC Attica p. 95, 684; SNG Cop 384
(5) Athens
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An AE unit struck 264-267 AD in Athens
Obverse: draped bust of Athena right wearing crested helmet

Reverse: mirror image of acropolis of Athens from northwest - Panathenaic way lead upward to the Propylaia at summit, large statue of Athena Promachos standing right, Erechtheion to right; in center of rock, niche representing the Cave of Pan with his statue

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Kroll 375 (same obv. die as 372b); Walker, Chronological 111–13a; Svoronos, Monnaies, pl. 98, 30–6
(6) Athens
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An AR Drachm struck 431-393 BC in Athens
Obverse: head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll

Reverse: owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left; AΘE

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
SNG Cop 41; Kroll 10; Dewing 1601; Svoronos pl. 11, 20; HGC 4 1631
(7) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck c. 454-404 BC in Athens
Obverse: Head of Athena right, in crested Attic helmet ornamented with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring with central boss

Reverse: Owl standing to right with head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind, ΑΘΕ before; all within incuse square

Diameter: 25 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 17.24 g
No notes for this coin
Kroll 8; Dewing 1591-8; SNG Copenhagen 31
(8) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 431-393 BC in Athens
Obverse: head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll

Reverse: owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left; AΘE

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
(Type C), Sear 2526
(9) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 165–42 BC in Athens
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right

Reverse: Owl standing on overturned amphora with legend to the left and to the right. H on amphora. ME below

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 16.67 g

“New Style". Magistrates Polemon, Alketes and Timon.

SNG Cop 254
(10) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 454-404 BC in Athens
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right, full crest

Reverse: Owl standing right, head facing, AOE to right in incuse square

Diameter: 24 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 17.21 g
No notes for this coin
Svoronos, Tf. 10 ff; HGC 4, 1597.
(11) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 393-300 BC in Athens
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right

Reverse: AΘE / Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent to left; all within incuse square

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 17.05 g

Intermediate Style Owl

Sear 2537; SNG Cop 63
(12) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 430-420 BC in Athens
Obverse: Head of Athena to right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves and palmette

Reverse: AΘE / Owl standing right, head facing; to left, olive sprig and crescent; all within incuse square

Diameter: 27 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 17.17 g
No notes for this coin
Svoronos pl. 12
(13) Athens
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 393-300 BC in Athens
Obverse: Head of Athena right in ivy-crested helmet, eye in profile

Reverse: Owl standing right, head facing, olive twig and crescent behind, A-Θ-E before

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 16.51 g
No notes for this coin
Sear SG 2537; SNG Cop 65; BMC 144.
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 431-393 BC in Athens
Obverse: head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll

Reverse: owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left; AΘE - Phoenician contermark bēth yōdh

Diameter: 22 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.5 g
Most likely three cuts over the owl are not test cuts but intentional destruction of a symbol of unpopular Athens by Phoenicians.
(Type C), Sear 2526
(15) Marcus Antonius
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An AR Denarius struck 32 BC in Athens
Obverse: Bare head right; small P (signature) in hair below ear; ANTON • AVG IMP III COS DES III • III V R P C around.

Reverse: ANTONIVS/AVG • IMP • III in two lines.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 3.84 g

"The carefully concealed letter "P" behind the ear of Antony's portrait represents the only known example of an artist's signature on a Roman Republican coin. The letter went unnoticed by numismatists for centuries before it was recognized in the early decades of the twentieth century."

Crawford 542/2