Coins from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system.

The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

It was lost fairly quickly to the Parthian Empire, but a number of important silver coins were struck in e.g. Seleucia on Tigris and other Greek cities.
Mesopotamia
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An AR Dirham struck 780 AD in Madinat-al-Salam
Obverse: Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة جى سنة اثنين و ستين و مئة Center: لا الاه الا الله وحده لا شريك له

Reverse: Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون Center: محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الخليفة المهدى يحيى

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: 2 H
Weight: 3 g
No notes for this coin
A.215.1
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An AR Dirham struck 772 AD in Madinat-al-Salam
Obverse: Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة السلام سنة خمس و خمسين و مئة Central: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له ¨

Reverse: Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون Center: محمد رسول الله بخ بخ

Diameter: 25.4 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 2.83 g
Translation of obverse:

Margin: "In The Name of God. This dirham was struck in Madinat al-Salam in the year five and fifty and one hundred (155)"

Center: There is no diety except |
(the one) God alone |
He has no equal

Translation of reverse:

Margin: Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it.

Center: Muhammad
The Messanger
Of God
(Bakh Bakh)
Album 213.1.
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An AR Dirham struck 765-766 AD in Madinat-al-Salam
Obverse: Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة السلام سنة ثمان و أربعين و مئة Center: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شريك له

Reverse: Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون Center: محمد رسول الله بخ

Diameter: 25 mm
Die Orientation: 3 H
Weight: 2.85 g

Year 148 AH=765-766 AD

Translations:

Obverse margin: "In The Name of God. This dirham was struck in Madinat-al-Salam in the year eight and forty and one hundred"

Obverse center: "There is no deity except (the one) God, he has no equal"

Reverse margin: "Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it."

Reverse center: "Muhammad The Messenger Of God (Bakh)"

Album 213.1; Lavoix 660
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An AR Dirham struck 714-715 AD in Wasit
Obverse: Margin:بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بواسط سنة ست و تسعين Center: لا الاه الا الله وحده لا شريك له

Reverse: Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون Center: الله احد الله الصمد لم يلد و لم يولد و لم يكن له كفؤا أحد

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 2.76 g
96 AH=714-715 AD

Translations:

Obverse Margin: "In the name of God. This Dirham was struck in Wasit in the year ninety six"
Center: "There is no deity except | (the one) God alone |He has no equal"

Reverse Margin: "Muhammad is the messenger of God. He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it."
Center: "God is One God | The eternal and indivisible, who has not begotten, and | has not been begotten and never is there | His equal"
Album 128; Lavoix 354
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 324-323 BC in Babylon
Obverse: head of young Herakles right wearing lion's skin

Reverse: Zeus seated left, leaning on scepter, holding eagle; kerykeion in left field; AΛEΞANΔPOY (HΦΛ) / M

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
under Stamenes or Archon After Mazaeus died in 328 B.C., Alexander appointed Stamenes as satrap of Babylon. Little is known about him, other than he probably died of natural causes around 323 B.C. when Archon of Pella replaced him. Perdiccas suspected Archon of colluding in the theft of Alexander's corpse and, in 321 B.C., sent Dokimos to replace him. Archon was defeated and died from battle wounds."
Price 3627
(6) Alexander III | Antigones I
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 315-311 BC in Babylon
Obverse: Head of young Heracles in lionskin right

Reverse: Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter monogram in wreath: (HYP); monogram under throne: (XA) AΛEΞANΔPOY / BAΣIΛEΩΣ

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.1 g
Antigonos I Monophtalamos in the name of Alexander III, struck by Peithon
Price 3723
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 281-261 BC in Seleucia on Tigris
Obverse: Diademed bust right

Reverse: Apollo seated left, on omphalos, holding arrow and resting on bow

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Sear 6886
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An AR Tetradrachm struck c. 281-261 BC in Seleucia on Tigris
Obverse: Antiochus I Soter facing right wearing diadem

Reverse: Apollo seated left on omphalus, bow in left hand, arrow in right, Greek text left (ANTIOXOY) and right (BAΣIΛEΩΣ), monograms left and right

Diameter: 28 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.97 g
Coin is encapsulated in holder. Scratch on upper right of reverse is on the holder, not the coin.
SC 379.3a; HGC 9; ESM 149; Houghton 950; SNG Spaer 289
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 261-256 BC in Seleucia on Tigris
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochus I right

Reverse: Apollo seated on omphalos left, holding arrow and bow; BAΣIΛEΩΣ // ANT_IOXOY, (HYP)_(ΠΩA)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.9 g
No notes for this coin
Houghton-Lorber I 587.1c, SNG Spaer 385-6, Newell ESM 180
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 261-246 BC in Susa
Obverse: head of young Herakles wearing lion's skin right

Reverse: Zeus seated left, leaning on scepter, holding eagle; ΣEΛEYKOY // (TAYP) // (ΔYP) / BAΣIΛEΩΣ

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
in the name of Seleukos I
SC 603.3c; HGC 9, 235
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 215-217 AD in Rhesaena
Obverse: radiate, draped and cuirassed head right from behind; AVT KAI__ANTΩNEINOC CEB

Reverse: eagle facing, head right, wreath in beak, shrine below; ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC TO Δ

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Prieur 877 (3 examples)
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 215-217 AD in Carrhae
Obverse: laureate head right; AVT·K·M·A·_·ANTΩNEINOC__·C_EB·

Reverse: eagle facing, head right, wreath in beak, bucranium below; ·_ΔHMAPX·EΞ·_VΠA·TO·Δ_·

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 13.8 g
No notes for this coin
Prieur 820
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An AE unit struck 242 - II 244 AD in Singara
Obverse: radiate bust right, draped shoulder; AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB

Reverse: turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius above; AVP CEΠ__KOΛ CINΓAPA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 10.5 g
No notes for this coin
BMC Arabia 1; SNG Copenhagen 254
(14) Gordian III | Abgar X Frahad bar Manu
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An AE unit struck 241-244 AD in Edessa (Mesopotamia)
Obverse: radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right from behind; star right AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB

Reverse: bearded draped bust of Abgar X Frahad bar Manu right wearing diademed tiara; star left; ABΓAPOC BACIΛEVC

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 9.8 g
No notes for this coin
SNG Cop 227
(15) Gordian III | Abgar X Frahad bar Manu
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An AE unit struck 241-244 AD in Edessa (Mesopotamia)
Obverse: radiate and cuirassed bust right from behind wearing paludamentum; AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB

Reverse: Abgar X on horse right draped with diademed tiara; ABΓAPOC BACIΛEVC

Diameter: 32 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 15.4 g
No notes for this coin
BMC 141 (same obv. die); CNG e405, 355 (same)
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An AE unit struck 242 - II 244 AD in Singara
Obverse: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right from behind, confronting draped bust of Tranquillina left wearing stephane; AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANON CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB

Reverse: City goddess left seated on rocks, holding branch; Centaur Sagittarius above; river-god swimming below; AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.4 g
No notes for this coin
BMC Arabia 8, SGICV 3804
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An AR Dirham struck 798 AD in Madinat-al-Salam
Obverse: Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة السلام سنة اثنتين و ثمنين و مئة Center: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له

Reverse: Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون Center: محمد رسول الله مما امر به الامير الامين محمد بن امير المؤمنين جعفر

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 2.96 g
No notes for this coin
L. 833 Lowick
(18) Hatra
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An AE unit struck 117-138 AD in Hatra
Obverse: Radiate bust of Shamash right; HTR DSMS (= Hatra of Shamash)

Reverse: Eagle above S.C upside down

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
SNGCop 232
(19) Husam al-Din Yuluq Arslan
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An AE Dirham struck 1184 - 1201 AD in Mardin
Obverse: Small draped bust, wearing Sasanian-style crown, facing slightly right, and large diademed Roman-style male head left; name and title of Husam al-Din above

Reverse: Four line legend citing Saladin as overlord

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 14.17 g
Artuqid dynasty
Whelan type II, 52-53; Spengler & Sayles type 34; Album 1829.2.
(20) Husam al-Din Yuluq Arslan
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An AE Dirham struck 1193 - 1194 AD in Mardin
Obverse: Lamentation scene depicting three standing figures around central female figure seated left, head lowered

Reverse: Islamic legend in five lines within circular border

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 12.8 g
'Death of Saladin' Sayles has argued persuasively that the scene represents an astrological event whose consequences would have been corroborated by the death of Saladin in 589 AH (1193 AD)
Album 1829.3
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An AE Drachm struck 100-150 AD in Susa | Seleukeia ad Hedyphon
Obverse: diademed, long bearded bust facing; pellet inside crescent and double crossbar anchor right

Reverse: dashes

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
vant Haaff 12.3.1-2A2; BMC Arabia p. 270, 90 ff. (Kamnaskires-Orodes II); SGICV 5910 var. (Kamnaskires-Orodes III, double crossbar)
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An AR Drachm struck 590-628 AD in Erankhvarrah-Shapur
Obverse: Crowned bust of Khusro II facing right, Pahlavi script to left and right, inside double circle, crescent with star above on four sides in margin

Reverse: Fire altar with attendants at left and right, Pahlavi script to left and right, inside triple circle, crescent with star above on four sides in margin

Diameter: 30 mm
Die Orientation: 3 H
Weight: 4.12 g
The script on the obverse within the circle to the left and right of the portrait translates to something like: "Khusro, may his glory grow"

The reverse script to the right of the right attendant near as I can tell the closest match translates to the Erankhvarrah-Shapur mint. I'm not 100% on this.

The script to the left on the reverse is the regnal year, but I could not match it against the examples on beast coins, which doesn't include every year, but includes several and all the above info which is very helpful with this confusing series.
No references provided for this coin
(23) Macrinus
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An AR Tetradrachm struck 217-218 AD in Edessa (Mesopotamia)
Obverse: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: eagle facing, head right, wreath in beak, shrine below; ΔHMAP·X·EΞ VΠATOC

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Prieur 860 (same obverse die)
(24) Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan
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An AE Dirhem struck 1214-1215 AD in Mardin?
Obverse: Bareheaded and draped bust facing slightly left; name and titles of Artuq Arslan around

Reverse: Name and titles of Abbasid caliph in five lines; above, Artuqid tamgha flanked by stars; date in outer margins

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 6.22 g
Ex J.P. Righetti Collection
Album 1830.4; Whelan Type IVA; S&S Type 40
(25) Orodes II
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An AE Drachm struck 100-150 AD in Susa | Seleukeia ad Hedyphon
Obverse: bearded head facing, wearing tiara; pellet inside crescent and anchor with double crossbar right

Reverse: dashes

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
vant Haaff 13.3.2-1A; BMC Arabia p. 262, 19; SGICV 5905
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Philip_II_Nisibis.jpg
An AE unit struck 249 AD in Nisibis
Obverse: radiate and cuirassed bust left; AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB

Reverse: facing seated statue of Tyche, ram to the right with head left above and river-god swimming to the right below, all inside tetrastyle temple temple with arched central bay; IOV CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 8 g
Jul/Aug 249 AD
BMC 22 corr. (Philip I); SNG Copenhagen 240 corr. (same); SNG Hunterian 2448-50
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An AR Tetradrachm struck c. 323-317 BC in Babylon
Obverse: Alexander III depicted as Heracles facing right, wearing the Nemean lion skin as a headdress

Reverse: Zeus seated on throne holding an eagle and scepter, wheel to left, monogram below throne, Greek text to right (ΦΙΛΙΠΠOY) and below throne (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ)

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.15 g
Text below throne is mostly off of the flan
Price P200
(28) Phraates
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An AE Drachm struck 100-150 AD in Susa | Seleukeia ad Hedyphon
Obverse: Bearded head left wearing tiara; pellet inside crescent and anchor right

Reverse: Dashes

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
vant Haaff 14.7.2-1; de Morgan 36; Sear GIC 5902; BMC 28 274 24ff
(29) Prince A
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Elymais.jpg
An AE Drachm struck c. 180-220 AD in Susa | Seleukeia ad Hedyphon
Obverse: long beard, diademed bust left

Reverse: Artemis standing right with bow and arrow

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.14 g
de Morgan's Prince 'A'
Sear GIC 5919; Mitchiner ACW 721
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/1059_Seleukos_I.JPG
An AE unit struck 296-280 BC in Seleucia on Tigris
Obverse: Horned and bridled head of horse right

Reverse: Anchor, BAΣIΛEΩΣ // ΣEΛEYKOY, monogram

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
SC 146; ESM 46; SNG Spaer 135.
/Files/Images/Coinsite/CoinDB/Seleukos_I_Tetradrakme.jpg
An AR Tetradrachm struck 311-300 BC in Babylon
Obverse: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin

Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; monogram in wreath in left field, HP monogram below throne.

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0 g
Struck in the name of Alexander III of Macedon, circa 311-300 BC
SC 82.5a; Price 3746.