Syracuse — A settlement in Sicily
The city of Syracuse is located on the east coast of Sicily and was originally a Greek colony founded by Corinth in 734 BCE. The city enjoyed a period of expansion and prosperity under the tyrant Gelon in the 5th century BCE, survived a two year siege by Athenian forces from 415 to 413 BCE, and again prospered under the tyrant Dionysius in the 4th century BCE when the city controlled much of Sicily and large portions of southern Italy.

A very powerful city-state, Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city. Described by Cicero as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all", it equaled Athens in size during the fifth century BC. It later became part of the Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire.

Modern location: Siracusa, Italy
An AU Solidus struck 751-775 in Syracuse
Obverse: COIst - LЄO Crowned facing busts of Constantine V and Leo IV, both wearing clamys; above, cross

Reverse: GNO LЄON PAMЧ Crowned facing bust of Leo III, wearing loros and holding cross in his right hand

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.8 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 15
An AE Litra struck After 410 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet with olive wreath; dolphin before and behind

Reverse: Hippocamp left; reins trailing.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 8 g
No notes for this coin
Calciati 44
An AE Litra struck After 410 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Athena left, wearing Corinthian helmet with olive wreath

Reverse: Hippocamp left

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 6.8 g
No notes for this coin
Calciati 44
An AR Litra struck 485-450 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Artemis-Arethustra right, hair turned up behind under diadem of beads, ΣV[RA] before

Reverse: Octopus/Cuttle-fish

Diameter: 6 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 0.41 g

Style indicates pre-second democracy, i.e. Gelon or Hieron I.


cf. Sear 929
An AE unit struck 275-215 B.C in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Poseidon left, wearing tainia

Reverse: Trident flanked by two dolphins swimming downward

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 6 g
No notes for this coin
An AE Hemilitron struck 230-218/5 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Diademed head left

Reverse: Warrior on horse prancing right, holding couched lance; ΣΛ below

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.61 g
No notes for this coin
CNS 195; cf. SNG ANS 956
(7) Syracuse
An AE Litra struck 405-367 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: helmeted head of Athena left; ΣYPA

Reverse: Hippocamp left

Diameter: 19.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 7.28 g
rule of Dionysios I
Calciati vol. II, p. 89, 45
(8) Syracuse
An AE unit struck c. 212-133 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo left

Reverse: tripod with lebes; ΣΥΡAK_OΣIΩN

Diameter: 14.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.3 g
No notes for this coin
Calciati p. 419, 212
(9) Syracuse
An AR Tetradrachm struck 485 - 466 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Charioteer driving quadriga right; above, Nike flying right, crowning horses

Reverse: ΣYΡAKOΣION / head of Arethusa right, in pearl necklace & pearl diadem under which hair tucked up behind, four dolphins around

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
Struck under the Deinomenid Tyranny, Gelon I / Hiero I, 485-466 BC
No references provided for this coin
(10) Syracuse
An AE Hemilitron struck 410-405 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Arethusa left, wearing necklace

Reverse: Star of (8 or 16) rays in circular incuse within quadripartite incuse square

Diameter: 16 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 6.15 g
Second Democracy. 466-405 BC, Struck circa 410-405 BC.
SNG ANS 398-402 or SNG ANS 394-7 var. (no E).
(11) Syracuse
An AE unit struck 278-276 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: head of Herakles left wearing lion's skin; ΣΥΡAKOΣIΩN

Reverse: Athena Promachos standing right, hurling javelin, holding shield; thunderbolt left

Diameter: 21.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 10 g
Calciati II p. 324, 177 Ds 14 Rs 60; BMC Sicily p. 206, 495; SNG Cop 811; SNG ANS 844; HGC 2 1450 (S)
(12) Syracuse
An AR 16 Litrai struck 274-216 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Diademed and veiled head of Philistis left; behind, [palm?]

Reverse: BAΣIΛIΣΣA[Σ] ΦIΛIΣTIΔOΣ / Nike, holding reins, driving slow quadriga right

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 13.5 g
Philistis, the wife of Hieron II, was a queen of ancient Syracuse, known only from her coins, which are numerous, and of fine workmanship, and from the occurrence of her name (bearing the title of queen, as it does also on her coins) in an inscription in large letters on the great theatre of Syracuse. The circumstance that it is here associated with that of Nereis, the wife of Gelon II, as well as the style and fabric of the coins, which closely resemble those of Hieron II and his son, leads to the conclusion that these were struck during the long reign of Hieron II. The most probable conjecture is that Philistis was the wife of Hieron himself.
Burnett, Enna hoard in SNR 62, 1983
An AE Hemilitron struck 317-289 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: Head of Kore left wreathed with grain, amthora ?; ΣΥΡAKOΣIΩN

Reverse: Bull butting left, dolphin above and below; (NK)

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 8.13 g
No notes for this coin
cf. Calciati II p. 218, 96 DS 114 R1 4
(14) Timoleon
An AE Hemilitron struck 344 - 336 BC in Syracuse
Obverse: ZEYΣ EΛEΘEΡIOΣ / Laureate head of Zeus Eleutherios right

Reverse: ΣYPAKOΣIΩN / Upright thunderbolt

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.8 g
Threatened by Carthage and dominated by Hiketas, the tyrant of Leontini, Syracusans sent an appeal for help to their mother city, Corinth. By a unanimous vote Corinth selected Timoleon to set sail for Sicily with a few leading citizens of Corinth and a small troop of Greek mercenaries. After defeating Hiketas, Timoleon put order to Syracuse' affairs and established a democratic government. He repelled Carthage in several wars, ending with a treaty which divided the island. Timoleon then retired without any title or office, though he remained practically supreme. He became blind before his death, but when important issues were under discussion he was carried to the assembly to give his opinion, which was usually accepted. When he died the citizens of Syracuse erected a monument to his memory, afterward surrounded with porticoes, and a gymnasium called Timoleonteum.
No references provided for this coin