Corfinium — A settlement in Sabina
Corfinium was a city in Ancient Italy, on the eastern side of the Apennines, due east of Rome. It was the chief city of the Paeligni, situated in the valley of the Aternus. There can be no doubt that Corfinium was from an early period the capital city of the Paeligni, and one of the chief towns in this part of Italy; but no mention of its name is found in history until the outbreak of the Social War, in 90 BCE, when it was selected by the confederates to be their common capital, and the seat of their government. It was probably to the importance of its situation in a military point of view that it was mainly indebted for this distinction; but the allied nations seem to have destined it to be the permanent capital of Italy, and the rival of Rome, as they changed its name to Italica, and adorned it with a new and spacious forum and senate house, and other public buildings of a style corresponding to its intended greatness. But before the end of the second year of the war they were compelled to abandon their new capital, and transfer the seat of government to Aesernia (modern Isernia). The fate of Corfinium after this is not mentioned, but it probably fell into the hands of the Romans without resistance, and in consequence did not suffer; for we find it at the outbreak of the Civil War between Julius Caesar and Pompey, 49 BCE, still retaining its position as a city of importance and a strong fortress.

From this time we hear but little of Corfinium; but inscriptions attest that it continued to be a flourishing municipal town under the Roman Empire, and its prosperity is proved by the fact that its inhabitants were able to construct two aqueducts for supplying it with water, both of which are in great part hewn in the solid rock, and one of them is carried through a tunnel nearly 5 km in length. The period of its destruction is unknown, but it seems to have been still in existence as late as the tenth century. After that time we find a city named Valva, which appears to have succeeded to the site of Corfinium, but has now also disappeared, though the adjoining valley is still called La Pianata di Valva.

Modern location: near Corfinio, Italy
An AR Denarius struck 90 BC in Corfinium
Obverse: Laureate head of Italia left, ITALIA upwards behind.

Reverse: Oath-taking scene: Youth kneeling by standard, holding pig at which eight soldiers (four on each side) point their swords, C in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.64 g
Provenance: Ex Roma Numismatics, Auction XVIII (29 September 2019), lot 842; Ex Baldwin's Auctions Ltd - M&M Numismatics Ltd - Italo Vecchi Ltd, The New York Sale I (3 December 1998), lot 4; Ex 'R. J. Graham' (Paul Tinchant) Collection, J. Schulman, Auction 243 (8 June 1966), lot 1400. Published in A. Campana, La monetazione degli insorti Italici durante la guerra sociale 91-87 A.C. (Modena, 1987)
Campana 63i, D36/R54 (this coin).