Coins from 44-36 BC
This category covers the coins minted from the Ides of March in 44 BC and until the defeat of Sextus Pompey and the fall of Lepidus in 35 BC.

While the official coins of the late Republic were still minted under the control of the moneyers, it became more and more common practice for imperators to coin their own money to pay their troops and for propaganda purposes.
44-36 BC
An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate and bearded head of Hercules right.

Reverse: Minerva, helmeted and draped, standing right, holding spear in right hand and Victory in extended left; shield at side, C • VIBIVS downward to right, VARVS downward to left.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.67 g
We know almost nothing about the moneyer apart from his coins. David Sear notes that this is one of the two rare 'types honoring Minerva and Hercules and allude to the forthcoming struggle with the Republican forces led by Brutus and Cassius. The goddess of war, the consort of Jupiter, and the legendary hero are invoked as powerful allies of the Triumvirs in their quest to avenge the murder of Caesar'.

Provenance: Heritage Auctions - Long Beach Expo World & Ancient Coins Signature Auction Session 5 (September 5-9 2019), lot 155. Ex Stack's & Bower's - Coin Galleries: The Numismatic Review and Fixed Price List (May - June, 1960), lot A371.
Crawford 494/37
An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: radiate draped bust of Sol facing slightly right

Reverse: two statues of Venus Cloacina standing on platform, L·MVSSIDIVS·LONGVS / CLOACIN

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.4 g
"The rev. shows the shrine of Venus Cloacina whose fundaments could be seen today on the Forum Romanum in Rome at the South side of the basilica Aemilia. This sanctuary is one of the oldest on the Forum. It is so old that even the Romans didn't understand its real meaning and invented myths to explain it. Cloacina probably is derived from the ancient Latin word 'cluere', meaning 'to purify'. After the rape of the Sabin women a war broke out between the Romans and the Sabins. The raped women bravely went between their fathers and their new husbands ans so stopped the slaughter. A reconciliation should have been occured at this very place with an expiation and purification (cluere!) ritual. There Myrtles had played an important role. It is said that they were found here and they were used for purification because they should have great purification power. Furthermore they were sacred to Venus, the ancestor of the Romans. Then at this place Vergina or Virginia, the beautiful daughter of Lucius Virgineus, a plebeian centurio, was killed by him to avoid the shame to become the slave of the tyrannic decemvir Appius Claudius Crassus. Appius Claudius was fallen in love to her and claimed that she was the daughter of a slave who had escaped from him. Due to the rigorous Laws of the Twelve Tables then she too was his property. This murder led to the abolishment of the decemviri (449 BC) and Lucius Virgineus became the first elected tribune. This story probably based on the myth of Lucretia who was raped by the son of king Tarquinius Superbus and because of that commited suicided. This event was the end of the Etruscian kings in Rome and the begin of the Roman Republic. The sanctuary of Venus Cloacina marks the place where the Cloaca Maxima reaches the Forum and takes the river Velabro. This river was the frontier between the region of the Romans and the Sabins where now the adversary parties have made peace. ... The sanctuary was not roofed but made by a round embracing wall and two cult statues. Originally it was probably the shrine of Cloacina. The origin of her cult and the erection of her sanctuary probably belongs to the the first period of the history of the Cloaca Maxima, either of the time of its construction or of the time of an important renovation even though the tradition ascribed it to Titus Tatius. In the course of time Cloacina was identified with Venus and called Venus Cloacina. In doing so the fact could have played a role that the myrtles were sacred to Venus. So this myth, the reconciliation of the Romans and the Sabins, could be the attempt to explain these unknown connection. ..." from Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Crawford 494/43, RSC I Mussidia 7, Sydenham 1094, SRCV I 495
An AR Denarius struck 41 BC in Military Mint | Ephesos?
Obverse: head of Mark Antony right, M·ANT·I(MP)·(AV)G·III·VIR·R·P·C·M·BARBAT·Q·P

Reverse: head of Octavian Caesar right, CAESAR·IMP·PONT·III·VIR·R·P·C·

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.3 g

Mark Antony, Octavian Caesar, struck in Ephesus? from spring to early summer 41 BC. Moneyer held unusual office quaestor pro praetore in the east in 41-40 BC. He accompanie Mark Antony after the battle of Philippi. He was probably also Curule Aedile. He restored aedicula shrine on the Forum Romanum and fountain of goddess Juturna (Lacus Iuturnae).

Crawford 517/2, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, SRCV I 1504
An AE As struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M•ANT•IMP•TERT•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•III•VIR•RPC - Jugate busts of Mark Antony and Octavia right.

Reverse: M OPPIVS CAPITO PRO PR PRAEF CLASS F C - Galley right, below A.

Diameter: 16 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.69 g
"This unusual coin is an example of Mark Anthony's "fleet coinage," a series of bronzes in multiple, clearly marked denominations issued shortly after Antony's marriage alliance with Octavian, the nephew of Julius Caesar. The exact dates, the nature and purpose of the series have been the subject of much debate. David Sear places the commencement of the series in the summer of 38 BC at a still unidentified Eastern mint. The coins were struck in the names of Antony and three of his admirals--L. Sempronius Atratinus, M. Oppius Capito, and L. Calpurnius Bibulus, and falls into two distinct series, "heavy" and "light." Most of the coins depict overlapping, confronting or Janiform portraits of Antony and Octavia, his wife and Octavian's sister. A few also show Octavian, in a clearly subsidiary position. Reverses almost all feature nautical themes--galleys under full sail, or figures in chariots drawn by hippocamps. The admiral's names, themes, and the combination of Greek and Latin letters indicate the coins may have been used to pay sailors in Antony's fleet, and were intended for circulation in his Eastern realm. An intriguing feature of the series is the range of denominations, all Roman, all clearly marked in Greek letters. They range from a large bronze sestertius, previously a small silver coin, marked HS in Latin and the Greek letter-numeral D, or four, indicating a value of four asses. Next comes an unusual denomination, the tressis, or three asses, marked G; then the dupondius, two asses, marked B; and the as, marked A. The series is completed by two fractions, a semis and quadrans, marked S and with three dots (three unciae) respectively. "

"M. Oppius Capito was Antony’s senior naval officer, stationed at the main naval base at Piraeus. His coins are found distributed around central Greece, and were most likely struck at Piraeus. His coins are found in two series, a heavy and a light and it has been suggested that some were struck at Tarentum where part of Antony’s fleet was based during the joint action against Sextus Pompey in 37-36 BC"

"The coin illustrated here is an as, marked A, with jugate portraits of Antony and Octavia on the obverse, a galley under sail on the reverse. It falls into the "light" series, perhaps issued a year after the first release of the coins, on a lighter standard, in the name of Antony and Oppius Capito. Although this experimental coinage was short-lived and very rare today, it is interesting to note that the great currency reform started by Octavian, after he had taken the name Augustus and become the first Emperor of Rome, resulted in a bronze coinage using exactly the same denominations as Anthony's fleet issues."

Provenance: Private purchase (August 2017).
RPC I 1470
An AE Semis struck 38-37 BC in Syria
Obverse: M•ANT•TER•COS•DES• ITER•ET•TER•III•VIR•R•P•C, bare head right.

Reverse: L•BIBVLVS•M•F•PR•DESIG, quinquereme right, with three oars and stern ending in boar's head left.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.61 g

Provenance: Private purchase (May 2018).

RPC I 4092
An AR Quinarius struck 42 BC in Lugdunum
Obverse: Winged bust of Victory right, with the likeness of Fulvia; III·VIR downwards in left field; R·P·C upwards in right field.

Reverse: Lion walking right; ANTONI above; A - XLI ( = 41, Antony’s age at time of issue) across field; IMP in exergue.

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.88 g
Provenance: Numismatik Naumann Auction 73 (6 January 2019), lot 440.
RPC I 513 - Crawford 489/6
An AE Sestertius struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M ANT • IMP TER COS DES ITER ET TER III VIR R• P • C •, bare head of Antony right vis-à-vis head of Octavia left.

Reverse: M • OPPIVS • CAPITIO • P[R) • PR • PRAEF • CLASS • F • C • - Mark Antony and Octavia in quadriga of hippocamps; in l. field, HS and below, Δ and astragalos.

Diameter: 40 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 30.16 g
Provenance: Aste Bolaffi, Auction 33 (29 November 2018), lot 310.
RPC I 1462
An AE Tressis struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M•ANT•IMP•TERT•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TER• III•VIR•R•P•C - Conjoined bare heads of Mark Antony and Octavian right, facing draped bust of Octavia left.

Reverse: M•OPPIVS•CAPITO•PRO•PR•PRAEF•CLASS•F•C - Three galleys under sail to right. Γ (Gamma) and Triskeles below.

Diameter: 32 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 25.78 g
No notes for this coin
RPC I 1463
(9) Octavian
An AR Denarius struck summer 37 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: head right, IMP·CAESAR DIVI·F·III·VIR·ITER·R·P·C

Reverse: sacrificial implements: simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinker), ewer (jug), lituus (augural wand), COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.5 g
Italian mint. Octavian as Caesar.
Crawford 538/1, SRCV I 1544, RSC I 91, BMCRR Gaul 116
(10) Octavian
An AE unit struck ca. 38 BC in Italia
Obverse: CAESAR DIVI F, Bare head of Octavian facing right

Reverse: DIVOS IVLIVS, Head of Julius Caesar facing right, wearing laurel wreath

Diameter: 32 mm
Die Orientation: 9 H
Weight: 20.82 g
Southern Italy?
RPC I 620
(11) Octavian
An AR Denarius struck 37 BC in Southern or Central Italy
Obverse: IMP CAESAR DIVI F III VIR ITER R P C, Bare head of Octavian with light mourning beard, facing right

Reverse: COS ITER ET TER DESIG, Pontifical emblems: simpulum, aspergillum, jug, and lituus

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.57 g
Roman Silver Coins I by Seaby notes that this reverse type probably refers to the renewal of the triumvirate
RSC 91; Cr 538/1; Syd 1334
(12) Octavian
An AR Denarius struck 43 BC in Military Mint
Obverse: C·CAESAR·IMP, Bare head of Octavian facing right

Reverse: Equestrian statue with Octavian, facing left; S·C in exergue

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.25 g
When a similar ocin was sold at Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG Auction 94 Lot 16 this was said:

"This is a favourite type coin for me as it is the first appearance of Octavian on a coin. Very often found in low grade, it is nonetheless a very historically important coin. It’s a great piece of history at a low price! Here you see a young Octavian for the first time on the obverse. The reverse shows the equestrian statue that he demanded the senate build for him after putting down the siege at Mutina. It is a brazen display of Octavian’s contempt for the senate."
RSC Augustus 246; BMC Gaul 81; Syd. 1318; Cr. 490/1
An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind

Reverse: Diana Lucifera standing half right holding torch in each hand, P·CLODIVS / M·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.8 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 494/21, SRCV I 492, RSC I Claudia 15, Sydenham 1117, BMCRR 4287
An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind

Reverse: Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.2 g
No notes for this coin
Syd 1117, Cr494/23
An AR Denarius struck 43 BC in Rome
Obverse: eagle on thunderbolt half right; PETILLIVS / CAPITOLINVS

Reverse: hexastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Roman Capitol), richly decorated roof; F__S

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
ex Helios
Crawford 487/2b; SRCV I 486, RSC I Petillia 3, Sydenham 1151
(16) Sextus Pompey
An AR Denarius struck 38-37 BC in Sicily
Obverse: MAG. PIVS. IMP ITER, Pharos of Messana, surmounted by statue of Neptune standing facing right, holding trident in right hand and rudder in left, left foot on prow; in foreground, galley left; aquila on prow; scepter, trident, and grappling-iron in stern

Reverse: PRAEF. CLAS ET. ORAE. MARIT. EX. S.C, The monster Scylla facing left, her torso of dogs and fishes, wielding a rudder as a club with both hands

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 3.74 g
No notes for this coin
RSC I Sextus Pompey 2
(17) Sextus Pompey
An AR Denarius struck 37-36 BC in Sicily
Obverse: bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis (jug) to left, lituus to right, MAG·PIVS·IMP·ITER

Reverse: Neptune standing left, foot on prow, holding aplustre and chlamys; the brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions on either side, holding their parents on their shoulders, PRAEF / CLAS·ET·OR(AE) / (MAR)IT·EX·S·C

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.4 g
Sicily mint, scarce. Reverse depicts Sicilian story of Amphinomus and Anapias which also indicate probable location of the mint (Catania): "A stream of fire burst forth from Etna. This stream, so the story goes, flowing over the countryside, drew near a certain city of the Sicilians. Most men, thinking of their own safety, took to flight; but one of the youths, seeing that his father, now advanced in years, could not escape and was being overtaken by the fire, lifted him up and carried him. Hindered no doubt by the additional weight of his burden, he too was overtaken. And now let us observe the mercy shown by the Gods towards good men. For we are told that the fire spread round that spot in a ring and only those two men were saved, so that the place is still called the Place of the Pious, while those who had fled in haste, leaving their parents to their fate, were all consumed." Neptune symbolizes Sextus' command of the seas and obverse is a reference to his piety in upholding the Republican ideals of his late father.
Crawford 511/3a, SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, BM Sicily 93