Coins from 59-44 BC
This category covers the coins minted from the first consulate of Caesar in 59 BC and until the Ides of March in 44 BC.

While the official coins of the late Republic were still minted under the control of the moneyers, it became more and more common practice for imperators to coin their own money to pay their troops and for propaganda purposes.

59-44 BC

(1) Aulus Gabinius 57-55 BC
Obverse: diademed head of Philip I right
Reverse: Zeus seated left holding Nike and scepter; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΦIΛIΠΠOY // EΠIΦANOYΣ / ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY / (AYΓB)
Ref: Prieur 1; McAlee 1; RPC I 4124; HGC...
(2) C. Coelius Caldus 52 (51)BC
Obverse: head of Coelius Caldus (moneyer's grandfather) right; standard inscribed HIS (Hispania) behind, standard in the form of a boar (emblem of of Clunia, Hispania) in front, C·COEL·CALDVS / COS
Reverse: statue of god seated left between two trophies of arms, all on a high lectisternium with front inscribed L·CALDVS / VII·(VIR)·EP(VL) (Lucius Caldus Septemvir Epulo), C·CALDVS on left, IMP·(AV)·X (Imperator Augur Decemvir) on right, C(ALD)VS III VIR below
Ref: Crawford 437/2a, Sydenham 894, RSC ...
(3) C. Considius Nonianus 60? (56)BC
Obverse: laureate draped bust of Venus Erycina right, wearing stephane, C·CONSIDI·NONIANI S·C
Reverse: tetrastyle temple of Venus Erycina on the top of mount Eryx, Porta Collina (place of Sulla's great victory)*, ERVC
Ref: Crawford 424/1, Sydenham 888, RSC I...
Obverse: mask of Pan right, PANSA
Reverse: radiate Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding patera and long scepter, IOVIS·AXVR· C·VIBIVS·C·F·C·N
Ref: Crawford 449/1a; SRCV I 420; Sydenh...
(5) Cn. Plancius 55 BC
Obverse: Head of Diana Planciana(?) right, wearing petasus, CN•PLANCIVS downwards in right field, AED•CVR•S•C downwards in left field.
Reverse: Cretan goat standing right; quiver and bow in left field.
Ref: Crawford 432/1
(6) Cn. Plancius 54 (55)BC
Obverse: head of Macedonia right wearing causia; CN·PLANCIVS / AED·CVR·S·C
Reverse: agrimi standing right, bow and quiver left
Ref: Crawford 432/1, SRCV I 396, Sydenha...
Obverse: Head of Venus facing right, wearing laurel wreath and diadem; scepter on shoulder; SC behind
Reverse: Three military trophies between capis and lituus; FAVSTVS monogram in exergue
Ref: RSC Cornelia 63; Cr. 426/3
(8) Julius Caesar 49-48 BC
Obverse: Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR in exergue
Reverse: Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf's head), and apex
Ref: Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; RSC 49; Sear...
(9) Julius Caesar I 49-VIII 48 BC
Obverse: elephant right, trampling on serpent; CAESAR
Reverse: sacrificial implements - simpulum (laddle), sprinkler, axe, apex (priest's hat)
Ref: Crawford 443/1, RSC I 49, SRCV I 13...
(10) Julius Caesar I - IV 46 BC
Obverse: head of Ceres right, grain wreath, DICT·ITER COS·TERT
Reverse: sacrificial implements: simpulum, aspergillum, capis (jug), lituus, AVGVR / PONT·MAX / M
Ref: Crawford 467/1, SRCV I 1403, RSC I ...
(11) Julius Caesar 47-46 BC
Obverse: Diademed head of Venus right
Reverse: Aeneas advancing left, carrying palladium in right hand and Anchises on left shoulder; CAESAR to right
Ref: Crawford 458/1; RSC 12; Sear 1402
(12) Julius Caesar 49 - 48 BC
Obverse: Elephant advancing right, trampling on serpent. CAESAR in exergue
Reverse: Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis (surmounted by wolf's head), and apex.
Ref: Crawford 443/1
Obverse: female (Pietas or Clementia?) head right wearing oak-wreath, cruciform earring, necklace and jewel above her ear, hair collected into a knot behind, and falling down her neck
Reverse: Victory running right, holding caduceus, Gallic trophy and palm fronds, L·HOSTILI
Ref: Crawford 448/2, Sydenham 951, BMCRR...
Obverse: Bare head of Gallia (or Pallor?) right, wearing long, dissheveled hair; carnyx to left.
Reverse: Diana (Artemis) standing facing, laureate, wearing long hair falling down her shoulders and long flowing robes, holding spear in left hand and stag by its antlers in her right; SASERNA upward around left, L • HOSTILIVS downward to right
Ref: Crawford 448/3
(15) L. Marcius Philippus 57 (56)BC
Obverse: diademed head of Ancus Marcius to right, lituus behind, ANCVS
Reverse: equestrian statue right on 5 archs of aquaduct (Aqua Marcia), flower below, PHILIPPVS / A-Q-V-A-(MAR)
Ref: Crawford 425/1, SRCV I 382, Sydenha...
Obverse: Head of Ancus Marcius right, wearing diadem; lituus behind, ANCVS below
Reverse: Aqueduct on which stands equestrian statue, flower at horse’s feet; PHILIPPVS to left, AQVA MAR ligate within arches of aqueduct
Ref: Crawford 425/1; RSC Marcia 28; Sear...
(17) L. Papius Celsus 45 BC
Obverse: head of Juno Sospita right wearing goat skin
Reverse: wolf right placing stick on fire, eagle left fanning flames with its wings, CELSVS·III·VIR / L.PAPIVS
Ref: Crawford 472/1, RSC I Papia 2
Obverse: Facing mask of Medusa with disheveled hair, coiled serpents at either side of face; L PLAVTIVS below.
Reverse: Aurora, winged and draped, flying right, head facing slightly left, holding reins and palm branch, conducting the four rearing horses of the sun; PLANCVS below.
Ref: Crawford 453/1a
Obverse: facing head Medusa wearing hoop earrings; L·PLAVTIVS
Reverse: Aurora flying right with head slightly left conducting 4 horses; PLANCVS
Ref: Crawford 453/1c, SRCV I 429, Sydenh...
Obverse: Head of Medusa facing, with coiled snake on either side; [L•PLAVTI]VS below
Reverse: Aurora flying right, conducting the four horses of the sun and holding palm frond; PLANCVS below
Ref: Crawford 453/1a; CRI 29; RSC Plauti...
(21) M. Aemilius Scaurus | P. Plautius Hypsaeus 58 BC
Obverse: Aretas, king of Nabatea, kneeling beside camel raising olive branch with fillet M SCAVR / AED CVR / EX S C / REX ARETAS
Reverse: Jupiter in quadriga left, holding reins and thunderbolt, scorpion right P HYPSAE / AED CVR / CAPT / C HYPSAE COS / PREIVE
Ref: Crawford 422/1b, SRCV I 379, Sydenh...
(22) M. Junius Brutus 54 BC
Obverse: LIBERTAS, Head of Libertas facing right
Reverse: BRVTVS, The consul L. Junius Brutus walking left between two lictors preceded by an accensus
Ref: RSC Junia 31; BMC 3861; Syd. 906; C...
(23) M. Junius Brutus 54 BC
Obverse: head of Libertas right with hair rolled wearing drop pendant earring and necklace; LIBERTAS
Reverse: L. Junius Brutus between two lictors left, accensus in front of them; BRVTVS
Ref: Crawford 433/1, Sydenham 906, RSC I...
(24) M. Nonius Sufenas 56 (59)BC
Obverse: head of Saturn right, harpa and conical stone left; S·C SVFENAS
Reverse: Victory standing left holding wreath and palm, crowning Roma seated left on pile of arms holding scepter and sword; ·PR·L ·V· P·F / SEX·NONI
Ref: Crawford 421/1, SRCV I 377, Sydenh...
Obverse: head of Bacchus or Liber right wearing ivy wreath; M·C(AT)O·PRO·PR
Reverse: seated Victory right holding patera and palm; VIC(TR)IX
Ref: Crawford 462/2, SRCV I 1383, Sydenh...
Obverse: draped bust Roma or Libertas rirgt; M·CATO·PRO·PR
Reverse: Victory seated right, holding patera and palm; VIC(TR)IX
Ref: Crawford 462/1c, SRCV 1381, RSC I P...
Obverse: head of Africa right, laureate and clad in elephant scalp, stalk of grain right, plough below; Q·METELL__SCIPIO·IMP
Reverse: naked Herakles facing, leaning on club set on rock draped with lion's skin; EPPIVS__LEG·F·C
Ref: Crawford 461/1, SRCV I 1380/1 (larg...
Obverse: G T A above, Q METEL PIVS right, SCIPIO IMP left, the Genius of Africa (Sekhmet the lion-headed Egyptian goddess) standing facing, holding ankh in right hand
Reverse: P CRASSVS IVN right, LEG PRO P R left - Victory standing left, holding winged caduceus in right hand, small round shield in left
Ref: RSC Caecilia 51
Obverse: SALVTIS, Laureate head of Salus right.
Reverse: MN ACILIVS / III VIR VALETV. Valetudo standing left, holding serpent and leaning upon column to right.
Ref: Crawford 442/1a; CRI 16.
Obverse: Laureate head of Salus right, SALVTIS behind
Reverse: Valetudo standing left, holding snake and resting on column; MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV around
Ref: Crawford 442/1; RSC Acilia 8; Sear ...
(31) Mn. Cordius Rufus 46 BC
Obverse: conjoined heads of the Dioscuri with laureate pilei right, stars above, RVFVS III VIR
Reverse: Venus Verticordia standing left, holding scales and scepter, Cupid on her shoulder, (MN)·CORDI
Ref: Crawford 463/1b, SRCV I 440, RSC I ...
Obverse: head of young Jupiter (or Bonus Eventus or Genius Populi Romani)* right, scepter behind
Reverse: eagle on thunderbolt right, lituus on left and jug on right, Q·CASSIVS
Ref: Crawford 428/3, SRCV I 391, Sydenha...
(33) Q. Pompeius Rufus 54 BC
Obverse: curule chair, arrow left, laurel branch right; Q·POMPEI·Q·F / RVFVS / COS
Reverse: curule chair, lituus left, wreath right; SVLLA·COS / Q·POMPEI·RVF
Ref: Crawford 434/2, SRCV I 400, RSC I P...
(34) Q. Sicinius | C. Coponius c. 49 BC
Obverse: diademed head of Apollo right; star below, Q·SICINIVS III·VIR
Reverse: Nemean lion's skin draped over club; arrow left; bow right, C·COPONIVS ·PR·S·C
Ref: Crawford 444/1a, RSC I 1, Sydenham ...
(35) T. Carisius 46 BC
Obverse: head of Roma right wearing ornate helmet, ROMA
Reverse: cornucopia on celestial globe, scepter left, rudder right all within wreath, T·CARISI
Ref: Crawford 464/3a, RSC I Carisia 4, B...
(36) T. Carisius 46 BC
Obverse: Head of Juno Moneta right; MONETA downwards in left field.
Reverse: Implements for coining money: anvil die with garlanded punch die above, tongs and hammer on either side; T•CARISIVS above; all within laurel wreath.
Ref: Crawford 464/2
(37) T. Carisius 46 BC
Obverse: head of Sibyla Herophile right
Reverse: sphinx seated right; T·CARISIVS / III·VIR
Ref: Crawford 464/1, SRCV I 321, Sydenha...
(38) T. Carisius 46 BC
Obverse: Head of Roma right, wearing ornate helmet; ROMA behind.
Reverse: Scepter, cornucopia on globe, and rudder; T • CARISI below; all within laurel wreath.
Ref: Crawford 464/3c
(39) T. Carisius 46 BC
Obverse: Head of Sibyl Herophile right, hair elaborately decorated with jewels and enclosed in a sling, tied with bands.
Reverse: Sphinx seated right; T • CARISIVS above, III • VIR in exergue.
Ref: Crawford 464/1