Coins from 78-60 BC
After the death of Sulla, there were several attempts by populists to dismantle his constitution, first by the Consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and later (successfully) by Pompeius Magnus and Crassus.

In 66 BC, the populist senator Catiline conspired to violently overthrow the government and enact populist reforms, but Cicero discovered the conspiracy and a bloody aftermath followed. The populares were discredited

As a result, Pompeius, Crassus and Julius Caesar created a private alliance known now as the First Triumvirate. With their backing, Julius Caesar was elected to the consulship in 59 BC.
78-60 BC
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An AR Denarius struck 64 (61)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, =

Reverse: naked horseman galloping right, holding palm branch and reins dagger? in exergue, C·PISO L F FRVGI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.9 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 408/1b, RSC I Calpurnia 24, Sydenham 851, SRCV I 348
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An AR Denarius struck 75 BC in Rome
Obverse: Winged bust of Cupid right; bow and quiver of arrows over shoulder; MAXSVMVS downwards in left field.

Reverse: Distyle temple with two facing statues within; Jupiter, to the left, holding staff, and Libertas, on the right, holding pileus. Above pediment, thunderbolt and pileus. VIII (control mark) in left field; CN•N in right field; C•EGNATIVS•CN•F in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.98 g
"The Egnatii were of Samnite origin, and at least some of them had settled at Teanum. At the end of the Social War, the greater part of these appear to have relocated to Rome, where two of them were admitted into the senate, though a branch of the family seems to have remained at Teanum.

This moneyer, a man of somewhat disreputable character, was admitted into the Roman senate, but was subsequently expelled by the censors. Not much more is known about him.

In Catullus love poetry, Cupid and Venus are constantly paired as the patrons of all sensual love and they have maintained the same symbolism even today for people who no longer worship the gods. The bust of Cupid so prominently placed on the obverse of Egnatius coin, depicted with his cherub-like features and armed with a bow whose arrows only wound one's heart with passion and desire, but never kill, is symbolic of peace and the pleasure it brings.

This issue is the only surviving record of the Temple of Jupiter Libertas. The temple of Libertas was built on the Aventine hill ca 246 B.C by the plebeian aediles Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and Gaius Fundanius. The money to finance the erection of the temple came from fines. The main contributor was Claudia, the sister of the consul of 249 B.C, Publius Claudius Pulcher. On an occasion when she found it hard to make her way through the crowded streets of Rome she exclaimed that she wished her brother was still alive to lose another fleet for the Romans for that would thin out the population a little. That insensitive comment cost her 25.000 asses.

In the course of time the temple came to be better known as the temple of Jupiter Libertas. The original connection between the two deities may be found in the belief that Libertas was the daughter of Jupiter and Juno. Egnatius depiction of the temple shows its true bipartite nature at that time. It was restored by Augustus as part of his grand renovation of Rome.”

Provenance: Purchased from Moruzzi Numismatica (5 March 2018). Ex Varesi 63 (26 November 2013), lot 46.
Crawford 391/2
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An AR Denarius struck 75 BC in Rome
Obverse: Winged bust of Cupid right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; behind, MAXSVMVS downwards

Reverse: Distyle temple with figures of draped Jupiter and Libertas standing facing within; C EGNATIVS CN F below, CN N upwards to right, control numeral (VIII) to left

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 2 H
Weight: 3.96 g
No notes for this coin
RSC Egnatia 3; Crawford 391/2; Sear 325
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An AR Denarius struck 65 (68)BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed and draped bust of Diana, bow and quiver over shoulder III VIR / GETA

Reverse: attacked boar right, spear in shoulder, hound below, C HOSIDI C F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.6 g
"Oineus, king of Kalydon in Aitolia, once had feasted the gods at an harvest festival but forgotten to butcher an animal for Artemis. The goddess was enraged and sent a big boar who wasted the fertile fields of the king. Oineus called for help and from all parts of Greece the heroes came to help him. There were the Curetes from Pleuron, the brothers of Althaia, the wife of Oineus. There were the Dioscurs Kastor and Polydeikes and their Messenian cousins Idas and Lynkeus. Theseus came from Athens, Iphikles, half-brother of Herakles, came from Thebens, Iason, Admetos, Peirithos, Peleus and Eurytion came from Thessalia, Telamon from Salamis, Amphiaraos from Argos, Ankaios and Atalante from Arcadia and much more. Herakles was prevented by his labours. On top of the heroes stood Meleagros, the son of Oineus and Althaia. The hunt for the Calydonean boar ended very disastrous. Many heroes lost their lifes. Ankaios was the first killed by the boar. Peleus accidentally hit his father-in-law Eurytion with his spear. A second hunter too was killed by the boar. The big catastrophe happened at the 6th day of the hunt. On this day Atalanta hit the boar with her arrow and Meleagros gave him the deathblow. Then he awarded head and skin of the boar to Atalante. But his uncles, brother of his mother Althaia, didn't tolerate that. They insisted on the rights of their clan. A dispute occured, they snatched the trophies from Atalante and then a fight began in which Meleagros slew his uncles. When Meleagros was born the fates predicted that he will live only as long as the log in the oven. Althaia pulled it out of the fire and hid it in a secret place. When she heard of the death of her brothers she enraged, got the log and threw it in the fire. When it was burnt Meleagros break down dead when he was dissecting the boar." - Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Kestner 3317; BMCRR I Rome 3389; RSC I Hosidia 1, SRCV I 346
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An AR Denarius struck 68 BC in Rome
Obverse: Draped bust of Diana right, wearing stephane, earring, and necklace, and with bow and quiver over shoulder; III VIR downwards to left, GETA downwards to right.

Reverse: The Calydonian boar standing right, it’s front legs thrust forward, pierced through by a spear and harried by a hound below; C•HOSIDI•C•F in exergue.

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.98 g
Although the significance of the type to the moneyer who caused it to be struck remains a mystery, the classical myth which it depicts and the lesson it carried regarding the consequences of neglecting the Gods would have been a message well known to and easily recognised by the ancient Romans. The Calydonian boar was sent by Diana (or Artemis as she was called by the Greeks) to ravage the lands of Calydon in Aetolia, where the king Oeneus had not afforded her the proper rites and respect. With the citizens cowering behind city walls, a hunt was organised by the king in which the lone female hunter, Atalanta, was the first to draw blood when she pierced the gigantic boar through its side with her spear, as depicted in this fine reverse type. The coin is easily one of my favourites of the Republican era.
Crawford 407/2; RSC Hosidia 1; Sear 346
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An AR Denarius struck 73 BC in Rome
Obverse: Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.

Reverse: Hound running right; spear below, C•POSTVMI and TA monogram in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.92 g
"It is possible that the monogram found in the exergue of the reverse on this coin may resolve as Tatius. On coins of both L. Titurius Sabinus and T. Vettius Sabinus the same monogram occurs in conjunction with the head of the Sabine king, Tatius, but the surname TA or AT is otherwise unknown for the Postumia gens. It is possible that the Postumii, undoubtedly one of Rome's most ancient families, claimed descent from the Sabine king."

Provenance: Tauler & Fau Floor Auction 20, (28 November, 2018), lot 112.
Crawford 394/1a
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An AR Denarius struck 73 (74)BC in Rome
Obverse: draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder

Reverse: hound bounding right, hunting spear below; C·POSTVMI / (TA)

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 394/1a, RSC I Postumia 9, Sydenham 785, SRCV I 330
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An AR Denarius struck 75 (76-75)BC in Military Mint | Taras
Obverse: diademed bust of Genius Populi Romani right, scepter across shoulder, G·P·R

Reverse: wreathed scepter, globe, rudder, EX S·C / CN·LEN·Q

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.9 g

mint in Spain. Moneyer struck this coin as questor of proconsul Pompey when he was sent to support Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius in lenghty war against Sertorius in Spain. Moneyer became consul in 56 BC.

Probably struck in late 75 BD in Taras or Brundisium, perhaps the fund of choice to pay local shipping contractors to ferry armies across the Adriatic and back
Crawford 393/1a; SRCV I 323; Sydenham 752, RSC I Cornelia 54, Russo RBW 1432
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An AR Denarius struck 67 (62)BC in Rome
Obverse: Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA

Reverse: L. Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left, TER / PAVLLVS

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.84 g
On reverse scene moneyer commemorates his ancestor L. Aemilius Paullus who had defeated Macedonian king Perseus in the battle of Pydna. TER stands for tertius since it was his third triumph. Moneyer was elected consul in 50 BC and was bribed by Julius Caesar who need his support. Paullus had used money to reconstruction of basilica Aemilia on Roman Forum. Paullus opposed the second triumvirate and his brother Marcus Aemilius Lepidus order his death but he managed to escape and join Brutus. After Brutus' defeat he was pardoned and spend his remaining years at Miletus.
Crawford 415/1, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Sydenham 926
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An AR Denarius struck 72 (74)BC in Rome
Obverse: winged head of Medusa left entwined with snakes; SABVLA

Reverse: Bellerophon on Pegasus right, brandishing spear; XXVII / L·COSSVTI·C·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 395/1, SRCV I 331, Sydenham 790, RSC I Cossutia 1
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An AR Denarius struck 75 BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed and draped bust of Libertas right, pileus behind; S·C__MENSOR

Reverse: helmeted warrior right in biga holding spear and reins asisting citizen togate into biga; II / L·FARSVLEI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 392/1b; Sydenham 789; Farsuleia 2
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An AR Denarius struck 63 BC in Rome
Obverse: Bust of Ceres right, between wheat-ear and barley corn; III-VIR across fields, BROCCHI below.

Reverse: Curule chair between fasces, L•FVRI CN•F above.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.95 g
"The obverse possibly relates to a family history where an ancestor served as aedile of the grain supply, the cura annonae, or it may just reflect the moneyer's populist political philosophy. At the time this coin was struck, Catiline's conspiracy was secretly developing, only to be exposed and crushed the following year during Cicero's consulship. Although grain shortage was not one of the social causes of the Catiline conspiracy as outlined by Cicero - remember that Pompey had cleared the Mediterranean of the pirate menace in the early 60s BC and thus the grain supply had been secured - after the revelation of the plot, Cato proposed a grain measure extending the dole to include Rome's poor. Obviously, then, even though supply was plentiful, it was a source of discontent for the many urban plebs who were not benefitting from free distribution, and perhaps it was this mood that Brocchus was attempting to exploit by his choice of types on this coin."

"Ceres was the Roman goddess of agriculture. She was equivalent to the Greek Demeter. The curule chair (sella curulis) was the official chair of the 'curule' magistracies: the consulship, the praetorship, and the 'curule' aedileship (the two highest aediles). The fasces were bundles of rods bound together. The rods symbolized the power to inflict physical punishment. When an axe (securis) was bound in the middle of the rods, it signified the power to inflict death."

Provenance: CNG 106 (13 September 2017), lot 659.
Crawford 414/1
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An AR Denarius struck 74 (76)BC in Rome
Obverse: radiate head of Sol right

Reverse: crescent moon, 7 stars around - Septem triones (Ursa Major), TRIO / L·LVCRETI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
Stars on reverse are pun for moneyer's name. Circumpolar stars of Ursa Major were nicknamed Septem triones after oxen (ox - trio) walking in circles during threshing of grain.
Crawford 390/1, SRCV I 321, Sydenham 783, RSC I Lucretia 2
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An AR Denarius struck 74 (76)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of young Mars right; S·C _ (XVI)

Reverse: ram right; L·RVSTI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.7 g
Sear identifies the head as Mars, Crawford as Minerva. Head usually appears masculine and the ram seems a better match for Mars (Aries). Babelon notes that the ram makes an appearance on the only other denarius of the Rustia family, that of Q. Rustius as moneyer under Augustus, and it seems possible the ram has some connection with the Rustia family.
Crawford 389/1, SRCV I 320, Sydenham 782, RSC I Rustia 1
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An AR Denarius struck 76 (77)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of Roma right, FLAC

Reverse: Victory in biga right holding wreath and reins, L·RVTILI

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.88 g
Moneyer became senator in 72 BC.
Crawford 387/1, SRCV I 318, Sydenham 780a, RSC I Rutilia 1a
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An AR Denarius struck 67 (62)BC in Rome
Obverse: diademed head of Bonus Eventus right; BON·EVENT / LIBO

Reverse: Puteal Scribonianum ornamented with garland and two lyres, hammer at base; PVTEAL / SCRIBON

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
The reverse of this coin depicts the Puteal Scriboniarum which L. Scribonius Libo renovated. According to ancient sources, the Puteal Scriboniarum was a bidental, that is, a spot which had been struck by lightning. It took its name from its resemblance to the low enclosure around a well (puteus) that was between the Temple of Castor and Pollux and the Temple of Vesta, near the Porticus Julia and the Arcus Fabiorum (arch of the Fabii). The praetor’s tribunal was convened nearby, having been removed from the comitium in the 2nd century BC. It thus became a place where litigants, money-lenders and business people congregated. Foundations of well were discovered during excavations in 1950. Bonus Eventus, originally the god of success in trade and agriculture who should ensure good harvest, bacame later the god of luck and happy end. He could commemorate recent event - the end of Catilinarian conspiracy.
Crawford 416/1a, RSC I Scribonia 8a, Sydenham 928, SRCV 367
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An AR Denarius struck 67 BC in Rome
Obverse: Bust of 'Vacuna' right, wearing a wreathed and crested helmet, bow and quiver on shoulder; cornucopiae below chin, CESTIANVS behind, S•C before

Reverse: Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left; M• PLAETORIVS M•F•AED•CVR around

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 3.97 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 409/1; RSC Plaetoria 4; Sear 349
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An AR Denarius struck 58 (69)BC in Rome
Obverse: draped bust of Proserpina right wearing bag or net decorated with poppy heads; cup behind

Reverse: jug and torch; M·PLAETORI / CEST·S·C

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4 g
Alba Longa auction
Crawford 405/4a; Babelon Plaetoria 7 var. Sydenham 804.
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An AR Denarius struck 77 (78)BC in Rome
Obverse: laureate head Jupiter right

Reverse: tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, thunderbolt in pediment, M·VOLTEI·M·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus consecrated in 509 BC burnt down in 83 BC and new temple was consecrated 69 BC. It's not clear if this is actual shape of the old temple. Reverse should perhaps commemorate ludi Romani in Circus Maximus.
Crawford 385/1, SRCV I 312, Sydenham 774, RSC I Volteia 1
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An AR Denarius struck 77 (78)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin

Reverse: Erymanthian Boar right, M·VOLTEI·M·F

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.1 g
This issue commemorates ludi plebeii held in Circus Flaminius.
Crawford 385/2, SRCV I 313, Sydenham 775, RSC I Volteia 2
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An AR Denarius struck 78BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate, helmeted and draped bust of Attis right; bow and quiver control-symbol behind

Reverse: Cybele seated in biga of lions right; O above, M VOLTEI M F in exergue

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 3.89 g
No notes for this coin
Crawford 385/4; RSC Volteia 4; Sear 315
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An AR Denarius Serratus struck 70 (71)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted and draped bust of Virtus right; III·VIR__VIRTVS

Reverse: Mn. Aquillius (consul 101 BC) facing, head right, holding shield, raising kneeling and slumped Sicilia left; (MN) AQVIL__(MN)·F·(MN)·N· / SICIL

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
Crawford 401/1, RSC I Aquillia 2; SRCV I 336, Sydenham 798 Aquillia
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An AR Denarius struck 72 (71)BC in Rome
Obverse: head of Hercules right, Q·S·C

Reverse: Genius Populi Romani facing, seated on curule chair, with right foot on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter; Victory flying and crowning Genius, holding wreath and palm, P·LENT·P·F L·N

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.4 g
rare
Crawford 397/1; Sydenham 791; Cornelia 58
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An AR Denarius struck 76 (77)BC in Rome
Obverse: helmeted head of young Mars right, XVI

Reverse: she-wolf prowling left, ROMA / P. SATRIE / NVS

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.7 g
The she-wolf, symbolic of Rome, depicted on this coin is not directly connected to the she-wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus. It was perhaps adopted as a symbol of Rome after the defeat of the rebel Italians who likened Rome to a predatory wolf. (Michael H. Crawford)
Crawford 388/1b, SRCV I 319, Sydenham 781a, RSC I Satriena 1
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An AR Denarius struck 56 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate bust of Apollo (or Erato?) facing right with hair rolled back and in loose locks over the forehead, flower or rosette before ear and a flower on stalk (or a compound plectrum?) to left, possibly a lily.

Reverse: Erato, the Muse of Erotic Poetry, standing slightly right, habited in the stola — over which is the palla, — holding a kithara, and playing upon it with a simple plectrum held at her side; Q•POMPONI to left; MVSA to right.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.98 g
"Quintus Pomponius Musa, otherwise unknown, minted a series of coins in 56 BC. Each of Musa’s reverses features one of the nine muses, each identifiable by her attributes. In the field behind a bust of Apollo, each obverse type bears a control mark which appears to correspond to the attribute possessed by the muse on the reverse. Apart from the clear reference to the moneyers name it is believed another inspiration source was a temple of Hercules and the Muses, erected by M. Fulvius Nobilior after his capture of Ambracia in 189 BC. Fulvius is said to have done this because he learned in Greece that Hercules was a musagetes. In this temple Fulvius set up a copy of the Fasti with notes, probably the first of this kind and also statues from Ambracia of the nine Muses by an unknown artist, and that of Hercules playing the lyre.

The Muses are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology. They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures. They were later adopted by the Romans as a part of their pantheon. According to Hesiod's Theogony from the seventh century BC, they were daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, and Mnemosyne, Titan goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were even more primordial, springing from the early deities Ouranos and Gaia. Gaia is Mother Earth, an early mother goddess who was worshipped at Delphi from prehistoric times, long before the site was rededicated to Apollo, possibly indicating a transfer to association with him after that time.

Sometimes the Muses are referred to as water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris. It was said that the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves to the ground on Helicon, causing four sacred springs to burst forth, from which the Muses were born. Athena later tamed the horse and presented him to the Muses.

Classical writers set Apollo as their leader. In one myth, the Muses judged a contest between Apollo and Marsyas. They also gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, and buried them in Leivithra. In a later myth, Thamyris challenged them to a singing contest. They won and punished Thamyris by blinding him and robbing him of his singing ability. The earliest known records of the Nine Muses are from Boeotia, the homeland of Hesiod.

It was not until Hellenistic times that the following systematic set of functions was assigned to them, and even then there was some variation in both their names and their attributes: Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Euterpe (flutes and lyric poetry), Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry), Melpomene (tragedy), Terpsichore (dance), Erato (erotic/love poetry), Polyhymnia (sacred poetry), Urania (astronomy).

Erato was one of the nine Muses. In the Classical era, when the Muses were assigned specific literary and artistic spheres, Erato was named Muse of erotic poetry and mime, and represented with a kithara. Her name means "lovely" or "desired" from the Greek word eratos."

Provenance: Purchased from Moruzzi Numismatica (25 April 2018).
Crawford 410/7b corr. (rev. type)
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An AR Denarius struck 56 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo (or Urania?) facing right with hair rolled back and in loose locks over the forehead, flower or rosette before ear and a star of eight rays to left.

Reverse: Urania, the Muse of Astronomy, wearing long flowing tunic and peplum, standing left, touching with wand held in right hand a globe set on base; Q • POMPONI downward to right, MVSA downward to left.

Diameter: 4.06 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 18.5 g
Provenance: Naville Numismatics Auction 46, (27 January 2019) lot 371. Ex Varesi sale 28, (1998) lot 182.
Crawford 410/8