Coins from Twelve Caesars
The Twelve Caesars is a book by Roman historian Suetonius, consisting of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the 11 first emperors.

Ironically, the category only covers eleven emperors, as Julius Caesar is included in the Imperatorial Era category,

However, the first 11 emperors honoured a large number of people on their coins, and so you will find many interesting characters depicted on the coins from this period.

This period ends with the murder of Domitian, after which Nerva is the first emperor in the period of the Adoptive Emperors.

Twelve Caesars

(1) Augustus 31-27 BC
AE unit Amphipolis
Obverse: bare head right; ΚΑΙΣΑΡ / ΘΕΟΥ ΥΙΟΣ
Reverse: Artemis Tauropulos riding bull right; AMΦΙΠOΛEΙΤΩΝ
Ref: RPC I 1626; SNG ANS 164 - 165; SNG ...
(2) Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
AE unit Philippi
Obverse: bare head right; AVG
Reverse: 2 priests with yoke of 2 oxen right plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary)
Ref: RPC I 1656, Varbanov III 3770, SNG ...
(3) Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
AE unit Philippi
Obverse: bare head right; AVG
Reverse: 2 priests with yoke of 2 oxen right plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary)
Ref: RPC I 1656, Varbanov III 3770, SNG ...
(4) Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
Obverse: bare head right; CEB_A_CTOC
Reverse: Athena standing left, holding spear and shield; Π_AIΩNIOY CYNAPXIA ANTI / OXEΩN
Ref: RPC 2834; BMC 28; SNG Munich 76.
(5) Augustus c. 15 BC
Obverse: laureate head right, lituus right; ΣEBAΣTOΣ
Reverse: Zeus Laodicea standing left with eagle and staff; ZEVΞIΣ / ΦIΛAΛHΘHΣ / ΛAOΔIKEΩN
Ref: RPC 2894; SNG Cop. 555.
(6) Augustus c. 15 BC
Obverse: bare bust right seen from behind; ΣEBAΣTOΣ
Reverse: serpent-entwined staff; ZEVΞIΣ / ΦIΛAΛHΘHΣ / ΛAOΔIKEΩN
Ref: RPC I, 477, 2895. SNG von Aulock 38...
(7) Augustus 14-5 BC
Obverse: laureate head right; AVGVSTVS·_DIVI·F·
Reverse: bull right; ·C·V·I·CEL· / II·VIR / L·BAGGIO / (MN)·FESTO
Ref: Villaronga-Benages 3164e, RPC I 273...
(8) Augustus 2-14 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AVGVSTVS·DIVI·F PATER·PATRIAE·
Reverse: Name and titles of the duoviri around wreath; (MVN)·(AV)GVSTA·BILBILIS / L·COR·C(AL)IDO·L·SEMP.R(VT)ILO II·VIR
Ref: RPC I 129, 395; Alvarez Burgos 164,...
(9) Augustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D.
AE unit Antioch
Obverse: IMP AVGVST TP POT
Reverse: S-C
Ref: None provided
(10) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: IMP·AVGVST·TR·POT·, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: S·C inside laurel wreath of eight leaves
Ref: RPC I 4247
(11) Augustus ca. 15 BC
Obverse: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath, lituus at right (off of flan)
Reverse: ZEYΞIΣ ΦIΛAΛHΘHΣ ΛAOΔIKEΩN, Zeus Laodiceus standing facing left, holding eagle and scepter
Ref: RPC I 2894
(12) Augustus 1 AD
Obverse: IMP AVGVST TR POT, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: SC inside an oak wreath
Ref: RPC I 3915
(13) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
AE unit Lystra
Obverse: IMP AVG, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: CERERIS, Ceres seated facing left, with long torch, and ears of corn with poppies over altar
Ref: RPC I 3540
(14) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: M POSTVM ALBIN L PORC CAPIT II VIR Q, Priest standing facing, holding simpulum and branch
Ref: RPC I 170
(15) Augustus ca. 21 BC
Obverse: IMP CAESAR DIVI F, Bare head of Augustus facing right
Reverse: A PLAVTIVS PROCOS, Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, containing conical xoanon; semicircular courtyard
Ref: RPC I 3906
(16) Augustus 19-2 BC
Obverse: PER CAE AVG, Bare head of Augustus facing left
Reverse: COLO PATR, Patera, aspergillum, jug, and lituus (priestly implements)
Ref: RPC I 131
(17) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: PERM CAES AVG, Bare head of Augustus facing left
Reverse: IVLIA TRAD in two lines within oak wreath
Ref: RPC I 108
(18) Augustus 2/1 BC
AE unit Antioch
Obverse: KAIΣAPI ΣEBAΣTΩ APXIEPEI, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: APXIE-PATIKON ANTIOXEIΣ Λ, Inscription in four lines within wreath of an archiereus
Ref: RPC I 4259
(19) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Head of Augustus facing left, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: CAESAR AVGVSTA L CASSIO C VAL FEN, Vexillum on base; II VIR to left and right
Ref: RPC I 311
(20) Augustus 1 AD
AE unit Paphos | Salamis
Obverse: CAESAR AVG PAT PATR, Head of Augustus facing left, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: C CAESAR AVG F PONT COS, Bare head of Gaius Caesar facing right
Ref: RPC I 3912
(21) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΠΙΚΕΩΠ, Inscription in two lines within laurel wreath
Ref: RPC I 1561
(22) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: MVN ERCAVICA, Bull standing facing right
Ref: RPC I 459
(23) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: C VAR RVF SEX IVL POL II VIRQ, Simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex
Ref: RPC I 167
(24) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
Obverse: PERM CAES AVG, Bare head of Augustus facing left
Reverse: IVLIA TRAD in two lines within oak wreath
Ref: None provided
(25) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
AE unit Lampsakos
Obverse: CEBACTOY, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: ΛAMΨAK, Priapus standing facing left
Ref: RPC I 2274
(26) Augustus 27 BC-14 AD
AE unit Cyzicus
Obverse: Bare head of Augustus facing right
Reverse: K Y Z I surrounding torch within wreath
Ref: RPC I 2244
(27) Augustus 27 BC-19 AD
Obverse: CAISAR, bare head right.
Reverse: CA inside an inner circular border, all within a laurel wreath.
Ref: RPC 2232; RIC 498
(28) Augustus 27 BC–14 AD
AE unit Tyras
Obverse: KAICAPOC CEBACTOY, laureate head left.
Reverse: TYPA-NωN, eagle standing right, wings spread.
Ref: Anokhin 61 (Vespasian); RPC Supp. 2...
(29) Augustus 37-41 AD
Obverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Head of Divus Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: AΦPOΔIΣIEΩN, Cult statue of Aphrodite
Ref: RPC I 2844
(30) Augustus 27-23 BC
Obverse: head right; CAESAR
Reverse: legend within laureate wreath; AVGVSTVS
Ref: RPC I 2235/RPC I 4100?, McAlee 190,...
(31) Augustus 27 BC - 14 AD
AE unit Berytus
Obverse: bare head right; CAESAR
Reverse: Dolphin entwined around trident within laurel wreath
Ref: RPC 4536; Rouvier 486; Sawaya 143
(32) Augustus 14-37 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; TI AVGVS DIVI AVGVSTI F IMP CAESAR
Reverse: bull right; L·F(VL)·SPARSO / L·S(AT)VRNINO / M·C·I II / VIR
Ref: RPC I 448
(33) Augustus 27 BC - AD 14
AE unit Amoriun
Obverse: Bare head right; lituus to right.
Reverse: Eagle standing right on uncertain object (thunderbolt?); long caduceus diagonally behind.
Ref: RPC I 3233
(34) Augustus 17 BC-14 AD
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Head of Augustus facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: C V I CEL L BAGGIO MN FESTO II VIR, Bull standing facing right
Ref: RPC I 273
(35) Augustus 2 BC
Obverse: laureate head right; ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ
Reverse: Tyche seated right holding palm, below rivergod Orontes swimming right; EΤΟΥΣ__ΝΙΚΗΣ / ΘK / (ΥΠΑ) ΙΓ / (AVT)
Ref: RPC I 4155; Prieur 54
(36) Augustus after 12 BC
Obverse: PERMISSV CAESARIS AVGVSTI P M; Bare head of Augustus facing left
Reverse: LIBERALITATIS IVL EBOR; Patera, aspergillum, jug, simpulum, and knife
Ref: RPC I 50
(37) Augustus ca. 21 BC
Obverse: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·, Bare head of Augustus facing right
Reverse: A PLAVTIVS PROCOS, Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, in which conical xoanon; semi-circular courtyard
Ref: RPC I 3906
(38) Augustus ca. 21 BC
AE Quadrans? Salamis?
Obverse: IMP CAES DIVI F AVGVSTVS, Bare head of Augustus facing right
Reverse: A PLAVTIVS PROCOS, Zeus Salaminios standing facing, holding philae and scepter; eagle rests on left wrist
Ref: RPC I 3907 corr. (obv. insc.)
(39) Caligula 37-41 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; ΓAIOΣ__KAIΣAP
Reverse: diademed head of Aphrodite right; AΦPOΔI_ΣIEΩN
Ref: RPC I 2845; BMC 97-8.
(40) Caligula 37-41 AD
AE As equivalent Thessalonica
Obverse: Γ KAIΣAΡ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Head of Caligula facing left, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: ΓEΡMANIKOΣ ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Bare head of Germanicus facing left
Ref: RPC I 1572; Touratsoglou, Caligula ...
(41) Caligula 37-38 AD
AE 12 Units Bosporus
Obverse: ΓAIOY KAIΣAΡOΣ ΓEΡMANIKOY, Bare head of Caligula facing right
Reverse: No inscription, Head of King Aspurgus facing right, wearing diadem; BAP monogram and IB in fields
Ref: RPC I 1904
(42) Caligula | Germanicus 37-41 AD
AE Uncertain Cnossus
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, Bare head of Caligula facing right
Reverse: GER CAESAR PVLCHRO III VARIO IIVIR, Bare head of Germanicus facing right
Ref: RPC I 994
(43) Claudius 41-54 AD
Obverse: bare head left; TI KΛAYΔIOΣ_KAIΣAP
Reverse: macedonian shield; ΣEBAΣTOΣ MAKEΔONΩN
Ref: RPC I 1612; Varbanov III 305; AMNG ...
(44) Claudius 41-54 AD
Obverse: bare head left TI KΛAYΔIOΣ_KAIΣAP
Reverse: macedonian shield ΣEBAΣTOΣ MAKEΔONΩN
Ref: RPC I 1612; Varbanov III 305; AMNG ...
(45) Claudius 41-42 AD
Obverse: laureate head right, star right; TI KΛAY KAI__CEBAC ΓEPM
Reverse: bull butting right; AYTOKPA / L B
Ref: RPC I 5122; Milne 69; Geissen 73; D...
(46) Claudius 43/44 AD
AE unit Caesarea
Obverse: ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟC ΚΑΙCΑΡ, Head of Claudius facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: ΕΤΟΥC ΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ Γ, Head of Tyche facing right, wearing turret headdress and veil
Ref: RPC I 4084; Sydenham 58
(47) Domitian 88-89 AD
Obverse: radiate head right; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P
Reverse: Ares standung left holding spear and shield; ΦIΛIΠΠO_ΠOΛEITΩN
Ref: RPC II 353; Varbanov III 618
(48) Galba 68-69 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; ΣEPOYI ΓAΛBA ΑYTOK KAIΣ ΣΕΒA / LB
Reverse: veiled bust of Eirene right, caduceus left, star right; EIPH_NH
Ref: Köln -; RPC I 5338; Dattari 304; Mi...
(49) Galba 68 AD
Obverse: ΣEPOYI ΓAΛBA AVTO KAIΣ ΣEBA, laurate bust right of Galba, regnal year in front LA (68)
Reverse: REV: EΛEΦΘEPIA, Eleutheria standing left holding wreath in outstretched right hand, left resting on column holding sceptre, in front simpulium
Ref: Sear: 2140
(50) Germanicus | Drusus II 14-19 AD
AE Half Unit Pergamon
Obverse: ΓEPMANIKOΣ KAIΣAP, Bare head of Germanicus facing right
Reverse: ΔPOVΣOΣ KAIΣAP, Bare head of Drusus facing right
Ref: RPC I 2367
(51) Julius Caesar | Octavian 28-27 BC
AE 2 Asses? Thessalonica
Obverse: ΘEOΣ, Head of Divus Julius Caesar facing right, wearing laurel wreath; NK countermark
Reverse: ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Bare head of Octavian facing right; Δ below
Ref: RPC I 1554; c/m Howgego 651
(52) Livia 22/23-29 AD
Obverse: Draped bust right, grain ear behind, peacock right
Reverse: Helmeted bust of Minerva left wearing aegis; WY'T in neophoenician script
Ref: MAA 35; Müller 35; SNG Copenhagen 3...
(53) Nero 67-68 AD
Obverse: radiate head left; ΝΕΡΩ ΚΛΑΥ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡ ΑΥ / LΙΔ
Reverse: bust of Zeus right, star right; ΔΙΟΣ ΟΛ_Υ_ΜΠΙΟΥ
Ref: Dattari 257; Milne 295; Geissen 207...
(54) Nero 59-60 AD
Obverse: laureate bust right wearing aegis; NEPΩNOΣ KAIΣAPOΣ Σ_EBAΣTOY
Reverse: eagle standing on thunderbol left, palm branch left; Ϛ / HP
Ref: McAlee 256; Prieur 79; RPC 4180A
(55) Nero 54-55 AD
AE unit Eumeneia
Obverse: draped bust right; NEΡΩN__ΣEBAΣTOΣ
Reverse: Apollo standing half left, holding raven and labrys; EΥMENEΩN / IOΥΛIOΣ / KΛ_EΩN / AΡXIEΡEΥΣ AΣIAΣ
Ref: RPC I 3149
(56) Nero 54-68 AD
AE unit Antioch
Obverse: laureate head right, coiled snake before; IM.NER.CLAV_CAESAR.
Reverse: large S·C within laurel wreath
Ref: RPC 4310, BMC 184
(57) Nero c. 62-65 AD
AE unit Iconium
Obverse: laureate head right; NEPωN KAICAP CEBACTOC
Reverse: Poppaea as Kore seated left, holding poppy and scepter; ΠΟΠΠΑΙΑ CΕΒΑCΤΗ ΚΛΑΥΔΕΙΚΟ_NΙΕωΝ
Ref: RPC 3544; Von Aulock, Lykaoniens 27...
(58) Nero c. 65 AD
AE unit Acmoneia
Obverse: laureate bust right wearing aegis, crescent above, winged caduceus below; countermark: Asklepios standing right, holding serpent-encircled staff; NEPWNA CEBACTON AKMONEIC
Reverse: Zeus seated left, holding phiale and long scepter, owl below; CEPOYHNIOY KAΠITΩNOC KAI IOYΛIAC CEOYHPAC EPI AΠX TO Γ
Ref: BMC Phrygia 43, SNG Cop 29, RPC I 3...
(59) Nero 65-66 AD
Obverse: NEPΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEP, Bust of Nero facing right, wearing crown, and aegis
Reverse: AYTOKPA, Bust of Alexandria facing right, wearing elephant-skin headdress, and drapery; LIB in right field
Ref: RPC I 5289; Milne 238; Emmet 109.12
(60) Nero 66-68 AD
AE unit Perinthus
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P, Head of Nero facing right, wearing laurel wreath; ΓAΛBA countermark in rectangular punch
Reverse: Eagle standing facing right on globe; SC in fields
Ref: RPC I 1762; c/m Martini 92
(61) Nero 65-66 AD
Obverse: Radiate head of Nero right, aegis on chest, NERW KLAY KAIS SEB GE
Reverse: Draped bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant skin headdress, AYTO-KRA; date LIB to right
Ref: RPC 5289; Milne 238; Dattari 204; G...
(62) Nero 54-68 AD
Obverse: Bare head of Nero left.
Reverse: Poppy.
Ref: RPC 2403
(63) Nero 66-68 AD
AE unit Hypaepa
Obverse: Laureate head right; NEPΩN__KAIΣAP
Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; VΠA / IOV_ΓP // HΓHCIΠΠ / OC
Ref: RPC I 2546; BMC 20; SNG Copenhagen ...
(64) Nero 65-66 AD
Obverse: radiate bust right wearing aegis; NEPΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEP AY
Reverse: draped bust of Alexandria right wearing elephant skin; AYTO_KPA / LIB
Ref: Dattari 204, Geissen 172, Milne 238...
(65) Octavian? 30 BC?
AE Uncertain Uncertain
Obverse: Bare head of Octavian? facing right
Reverse: Fiscus, sella quaestoria, and hasta; Q below
Ref: RPC I 5409
(66) Tiberius 14-37 AD
Obverse: TIBEPION KAICAPA TPI ΠΟΛΕΙΤAI, Head of Tiberius facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: MENANΔPOC ΦIΛOKAICAP OTΔ, Head of Helios facing right, wearing crown
Ref: RPC I 3056
(67) Tiberius
AE unit Philippi
Obverse: TI. AVG. Bare head of Tiberius right
Reverse: Two figures plowing right with oxen
Ref: RPC 1657
(68) Tiberius 14-37 AD
AE unit Italica
Obverse: TI CAESAR AVGVSTVS PONT MAX IMP, Bare head of Tiberius facing right
Reverse: MVNIC ITALIC PERM DIVI AVG, Altar inscribed PROVIDENTIAE AVGVSTI in three lines
Ref: RPC I 65
(69) Tiberius 14-37 AD
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Bare head of Tiberius facing left
Reverse: SEGO BRIGA, Inscription in two lines inside wreath
Ref: RPC I 473
(70) Tiberius 23-29 AD
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS P M, Bare head of Tiberius facing left
Reverse: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES QVINQ C V I N C, Confronting bare heads of Nero and Drusus
Ref: RPC I 179
(71) Tiberius 14-37 AD
AE unit Philippi?
Obverse: TI AVG, Bare head of Tiberius facing right
Reverse: Two priests plowing to the right with yoke of oxen
Ref: RPC I 1657
(72) Tiberius 14-37 AD
Obverse: TI·CAESAR·AVG·F·AVGVSTVS·IMP, Head of Tiberius facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: MVN·TVRIASO·MN·SVLP·LVCAN·M·SEMP·FRONT·,II VIR inside oak wreath
Ref: RPC I 413
(73) Tiberius 14-37 AD
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right.
Reverse: MVNICIP / CASCANTVM, Bull standing right, head facing.
Ref: RPC 427
(74) Tiberius 31/32 AD
AE Dupondius equivalent/8 chalkoi Antioch
Obverse: TI CAESAR AVG TR POT XXXIII, Head of Tiberius facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: SC inside laurel wreath
Ref: RPC I 4272
(75) Tiberius 14-37 AD
AE unit Cascantum
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Head of Tiberius facing right, wearing laurel wreath
Reverse: MVNICIP CASCA[NT](ligature)VM, Bull standing right, head facing
Ref: RPC I 427
(76) Vespasian 69-70 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY / L B
Reverse: Eirene standing left, holding flower and caduceus; EI_PH_NH
Ref: RPC II 2411, Milne 388, Curtis 252,...
(77) Vespasian 69-71 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AYTOKPATΩP KAIC_AP CEBACTOC OYECΠACIANOC
Reverse: eagle standing left, wreath in beak, palm left, club below; ETOYC__NEOY IEPOY [B,Γ]
Ref: Prieur 135/136 Nineth Group
(78) Vespasian 77-78 AD
Obverse: diademed head right; AYTOKPA KAICAP OYECΠACIANOC CEBACTOC
Reverse: Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm; NIKH__CEBACTH
Ref: RPC II 1647, Sydenham 89
(79) Vespasian 72-73 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY
Reverse: Falcon standing right; L E
Ref: Geißen: 295, Dattari: 415