Byzantion — A settlement in Thrace also known as Constantinopolis - Istanbul - Constantinople
Byzantion was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul. Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from Megara in c. 657 BC.

It was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantium later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side.

The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself. After his death the city was called Constantinople (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoupolis, "city of Constantine").

On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, and again became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire. The Turks called the city "Istanbul" - the name derives from "eis-tin-polin" (Greek: "to-the-city").

Modern location: Istanbul, Turkey
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 400-401 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: diademed and draped bust right, hand of god above; AEL EVDO_XIA AVG

Reverse: Eudoxia seated facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by hand of god, cross left; GLORIA RO_MANORVM / CON?

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
9.1.400 - 401 AD
RIC X Constantinople 77 (S gamma) / 78 ( B, gamma, delta) LRBC II 2218 / 2220, SRCV V 20887
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 383 A.D. in Constantinopolis
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace

Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield set on narrow column. T in right field. Mintmark CON Epsilon.

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1.46 g

20

RIC 81
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An AE unit struck 383-386 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: diademed and draped bust right; AEL FLAC_CILLA AVG

Reverse: Victory seated right, inscribing christogram on shield set on cippus; SALVS REI_PVBLICAE / CONΓ

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.3 g
25 Aug 383 - 386 AD
RIC IX Constantinople 61.2, LRBC II 2162, SRCV V 20626, Cohen VIII 5
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An AE Follis struck 491-518 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse:

Reverse:

Diameter: 38 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.25 g
No notes for this coin
No references provided for this coin
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An AE Nummus struck 491-498 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: draped, diademed bust right; (illegible letters)

Reverse: Monogram of Anastasius

Diameter: 9 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.06 g
No notes for this coin
BMC 32:128, Wroth 26
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 393-395 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, trophy on shoulder, dragging captive behind her. Chi-Rho in left field.

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 1.2 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 20847
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 395-401 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N ARCADI_VS P F AVG

Reverse: Arcadius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield; being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm; VIRTVS_EXERCITI / CONSA

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.13 g
No notes for this coin
RIC X 60
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 388-392 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG / pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, dragging captive; CONS?

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 0.97 g
No notes for this coin
RIC IX Constantinople 86c; Sear 20847
(9) Byzantion
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An AR Hemidrachm struck 387-340 BC in Byzantion
Obverse: forepart of cow left, below dolphin swimming left; (BY)

Reverse: wide ornamented trident

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.9 g
No notes for this coin
Schönert-Geiss Byzantion 778; SNG BM 17; Klein 88; SNG Cop 484 var. (monogram); BMC Thrace p. 94, 23 var. (same), SGCV I 158
(10) Byzantion | Lysimachos
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An AR Tetradrachm struck c. 125-75 BC in Byzantion | Chalcedon
Obverse: Head of the deified Alexander with Ammon's horns right

Reverse: Athena Nikephoros seated left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΛYΣIMAXOY, monogram (ΠΩΛYB) to left; BY below throne, trident in exergue

Diameter: 35 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 16.87 g
No notes for this coin
Marinescu 508 (O. 211 R. 483) issue 149; Dewing 1361, Müller 204; Gorny & Mosch: Auction 160 lot 1182, Künker Auction 174 lot 174
(11) Chalcedon | Lysimachos
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An AR Tetradrachm struck c. 250-100 BC in Chalcedon | Byzantion
Obverse: Head of the deified Alexander with diadem and Ammon's horns right

Reverse: Athena enthroned left, holding Nike with wreath, transverse spear, resting hand on shield; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΛYΣIMAXOY // AΣ / KAΛXA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 17.1 g
Dies for Chalcedon and Byzantion tetradrachms were made by the same engravers and probably also struck in the same workshop.
Marinescu 115 (O. 44 R. 104) issue 50
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 330-335 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: Constantinopolis helmeted, laureate bust left, holding scepter over shoulder; CONSTAN_TINOPOLI

Reverse: Victory standing left, stepping on galley prow, cradling scepter and resting hand on shield; •CONSIA•

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.3 g
Constantinople Commemorative •CONSIA• isn't listed in Helvetica's list!
RIC 86 (VII, Constantinople)
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An AU Solidus struck 662 - 667 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: Facing busts of Constans and Constantine IV, both draped, with Constans wearing plumed helmet; cross above

Reverse: VICTORIA AЧGЧ Z, cross potent on three steps; at sides, Heraclius and Tiberius standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; CONOB in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 4.38 g
NGC Cert: 4284172-002 MS Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5
DOC 30g; MIB 31; Sear 964
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An AE Nummus struck AD 330-333 in Constantinople
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Two soldiers standing facing each other, each resting on spear and shield, two standards between them; CONSΓ in exergue

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 2.4 g
No notes for this coin
RIC 60; Sear 17338
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An AE Follis struck 1025-1028 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: + ЄMMΛ-HOVHΛ, barred IC XC across field, nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels

Reverse: + IhSЧS/XRISTЧS/bASILЄЧ/bASILЄ· in four lines across field; above and below; ornate As.

Diameter: 29 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 8.29 g
Anonymous, but attributed to Constantine VIII
DOC class A2; SB 1818
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An AE Maiorina struck AD 353-354 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier rushing left holding shield on left arm and spearing a fallen horseman whose mount has stumbled beneath him, shield on ground to right, • left

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 1.8 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 19018
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 348-350 A.D. in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, radiate phoenix standing right on globe.

Diameter: 16.6 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.17 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII Constantinople 93B.
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An AE Centenionalis struck 348-351 A.D. in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on globe.

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 2.01 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII Constantinople 93 var (officina letter).
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 337-340 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-rosette-diademed head right; D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG

Reverse: two soldiers standing either side of a standard; GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS / CONSΘ

Diameter: 14 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.72 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII Constantinople 43
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An AE Centenionalis struck 355-361 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG

Reverse: soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet); FEL TEMP R_EPARATIO / · / CONS{Z,I}

Diameter: 17.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.21 g
6.11.355 - 3.11.361 AD FEL TEMP R_EPARATIO is scarcer legend break
Constantinople 121 unlisted
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 333-335 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C

Reverse: two soldiers standing either side of two standards; GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS / CONSS·

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.53 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VII Constantinople 75, LRBC 1012
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An AE Centenionalis struck 355-361 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG

Reverse: soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet); FEL TEMP RE_PARATIO / · / CONSZ

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.56 g
6.11.355 - 3.11.361 AD
Constantinople 121
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 347-348 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: rossete-diademed head right; D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG

Reverse: VOT / XX / . / MVLT / XXX within wreath; CONSΓ

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.7 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII Constantinople 69
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An AE Maiorina struck 351-355 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG

Reverse: soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet); FEL TEMP RE_PARATIO / ·S· _ * / CONSA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.39 g
15.3.351 - 6.11.355 AD
Constantinople 116
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An AE Quarter-Maiorina struck 348-350 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-didemed, draped and cuirassed bust right; D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG

Reverse: phoenix on globe right; FEL TEMP REPARATIO / CONS?

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.04 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII Constantinople 93
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An AE Nummus struck AD 336-337 in Constantinople
Obverse: FL HANNIBALLIANO REGI, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Euphrates seated right on ground, leaning on sceptre with urn at his side and reed in background; CONSS in exergue

Diameter: 16 mm
Die Orientation: 5 H
Weight: 1.44 g
No notes for this coin
RIC 147; LRBC 1036
(27) Helena
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An BL Centenionalis struck 337-340 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: FL IVL HELENAE AVG, draped bust of Helena right, her hair elaborately dressed

Reverse: PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left holding olive branch

Diameter: 17 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1.1 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 17498
(28) Helena
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 337-340 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: draped bust right with broad diadem; FL IVL HELE_NAE AVG

Reverse: Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter; PA_X PV_BLICA· / CONSE

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.28 g
IX 337 - spring 340 AD
RIC VIII Constantinople 35
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An AR Hexagram struck an unknown year in Constantinople
Obverse: dd NN hERACLIUS Et hERA CONSt, Heraclius on left and Heraclius Constantine on right, seated facing on double-throne, each holding cross on globe in right hand, small cross above

Reverse: dEUS AdIUtA ROmANIS, Cross-potent on globe above three steps (no field marks)

Diameter: 24 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 6.4 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 795, DO 61, MIB 134
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An AU Tremissis struck 610 - 641 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: dN hЄRACLIЧS PP AVG Heraclius pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: VICTORIA AVÇЧ І Cross potent/ CONOB

Diameter: 17.9 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.45 g
No notes for this coin
Sear Byzantine 786
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An AR Stavraton struck 1421/5-1448 in Constantinople
Obverse: IC-XC, Facing bust of Christ, right hand raised, eight dots around surrounding

Reverse: WANHC DECPOTIC O PALEOLOGOC QV XAPITI AVTOKPATOP in two lines around nimbate facing bust of John VIII; dot to left and right.

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
In NGC slab XF
Sear-2563
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An AR Half-Stavraton struck 1421/5-1448 in Constantinople
Obverse: IC-XC, Facing bust of Christ

Reverse: WANHC BACILEVC (or DECPOTIC) Q PALEOLOGOC, Facing bust of emperor

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
in NGC slab choice VF
SB 2565; Grierson 1519; LPC 172, 2; PCPC 349
(33) Jovian
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An BL Centenionalis struck AD 363-364 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN IOVIANVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left

Reverse: VOT/ V/ MVLT/ X in four lines within wreath

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 2.7 g
No notes for this coin
RIC VIII 179, Sear 19232
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An AE unit struck 193-217 AD in Byzantion
Obverse: IOVΛIA AVΓOVCTA, Bust of Julia facing right, wearing diadem and drapery

Reverse: BVZANTIΩN, Athena standing facing, head left, holding shield and inverted spear

Diameter: 26 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 10.3 g
No notes for this coin
Varbanov 1743
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An AE Double Maiorina struck 361-363 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG

Reverse: Bull right, 2 stars above; SECVRITAS REIPVB· / ·CONSPA(branch)

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 8.44 g

3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD ex Aurea

RIC VIII Constantinople 162
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An AU Solidus struck Jan. 566 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: D N I - VST - INVS PP AVI, Helmeted bust facing, holding Victory on globe and shield.

Reverse: VICTORI - A AVGGG ? (officina 4) around, CONOB in exergue, Constantinipolis seated facing, head r., holding spear and cross on globe.

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.31 g
No notes for this coin
Berk-59, Hahn-4, Sear-344.
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An AE unit struck 539-540 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, Bust of Justinian wearing helmet and cuirass, facing holding cross on globe and shield; cross to right

Reverse: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year (XIII) to right, officina letter (ϵ) below; CON in exergue

Diameter: 42 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 21.4 g

Byzantine Empire
AE Follis

Minted at the fifth officina in Constantinople during regnal year 13 which corresponds to 539/540 AD (Reigns typically didn't start on January 1st, so there is overlap)

SB 163
(38) Leo I
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An AU Solidus struck 462-466 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: diademed, helmeted and cuirassed 3/4 facing bust, spear over shoulder; D N LEO PE_RPET AVG

Reverse: Victory standing left with long cross; VICTORI_A AVGGG B / * / CON OB

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.42 g
No notes for this coin
RIC X 605, DOC 528
(39) Leo I
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 457-474 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: pearl-didemed draped and cuirassed, bust right; D N LEO P AVG

Reverse: lying lion left, head right; CON

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
RIC 668ff.
(40) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886-912 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: +LЄOҺ bAS-ILЄVS Rom. Crowned and draped bust facing, holding akakia.

Reverse: +LЄOҺ/ЄҺ ӨЄO ЬA/SILЄVS R/OmЄOҺ in four lines.

Diameter: 25 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.86 g
No notes for this coin
DOC 8; SB 1729
(41) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886-912 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: +LEON bAS-ILEVS ROM, crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

Reverse: +LEOh Eh ΘEO bA-SILEVS R-OMEOh, legend in four lines.

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 5.58 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 1729; DOC 8
(42) Leo VI
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An AE Follis struck 886 - 912 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: +LEON bAS-ILEVS ROM / crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

Reverse: +LEOh Eh ΘEO bA-SILEVS R-OMEOh / legend in four lines

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 7.87 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 1729
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An AU Solidus struck 590-602 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN mAVRC TIb PP AVG, Bust of Maurice facing, wearing plumed helmet, and cuirass, holding cross on globe

Reverse: VICTORIA AVGGI, Angel standing facing, holding long P-headed cross, and cross on globe; CONOB in exergue

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 4.24 g
VICTORIA AVGG="to the Victory of the two Emperors" (referring to himself and his son co-emperor Theodosius)
The I at the end denotes the 10th officina.

Given that Theodosius was not raised as co-emperor until 590, it makes sense to date the coin to his reign in my opinion.

CONOB="Constantinople, 1/72 pound pure gold"
SB 478
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An AE Half-Follis struck 593 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: D N MAVR TIBER PP AV. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield.

Reverse: Large mark of value K; ANNO to left, cross above, X/I to right, A in exergue.

Diameter: 22 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 5.15 g
1st officina. Dated RY 11.
SBV 497; DOC 56a
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An AE unit struck 383 - 388 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG / pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCITI / Emperor stepping to the right, treading on captive and holding labarum and globe. Mintmark CONSA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
RIC IX Constantinople 83b; Sear 20504.
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 388-395 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG

Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive; SALVS REI_PVBLICAE / (XP) / CONSA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.2 g
No notes for this coin
RIC IX Constantinople 86b/90a
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An AE Maiorina struck 378-383 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: draped and cuirassed bust right wearing helmet with pearl diadem, holding spear and shield in front; D N THEODO_SIVS P F AVG

Reverse: Theodosius on galley left, head right, raising hand; Victory seated left, steering galley; GLORIA RO_MANORVM / wreath / CONA

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
9.8.378 - 25.8.383 AD
RIC IX Constantinople 52c; Sear 20478
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An AE Centenionalis struck AD 406-408 in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG

Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Aracadius & Honorius standing on either side of a shorter Theodosius II, looking towards each other and holding spear and shields, the younger looking forward and holding spear and globe

Diameter: 0 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 0 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 21193
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An AR Light miliarense struck 408-420 in Constantinople
Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II to left

Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM / CON Theodosius II, nimbate and in military attire, standing front, head to left, raising his right hand in salute and holding globe in his left; in field to left, star

Diameter: 23.5 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 4.26 g
No notes for this coin
RIC 370
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An AE Half-Centenionalis struck 388-392 AD in Constantinopolis
Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, trophy on shoulder, dragging captive behind her. Cross in left field?

Diameter: 12 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 1 g
No notes for this coin
Sear 20345
(51) Zeno
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An AE Nummus struck 476-791 in Constantinople
Obverse: Laureate, draped bust right

Reverse: Type 5 Monogram

Diameter: 0.9 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.4 g
No notes for this coin
RIC X 962
(52) Zeno
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An AU Solidus struck 476 - 491 AD in Constantinople
Obverse: D N ZENO - PERP AVG: Bust of Zeno, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed, facing front, holding spear in right hand behind head and shield decorated with horseman on left arm

Reverse: VICTORI-A AVGGGΔ: Victory, winged, draped, standing right, supporting long jeweled cross; star in right field. MintMark: -/-//CONOB

Diameter: 20.5 mm
Die Orientation: 6 H
Weight: 4.46 g
Epsilon graffito in obv. field.
RIC X Zeno (East) 910