Coins from Samnium
Samnium is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy inhabited by the Samnites. The ancient geographers were unable to relay a precise definition of Samnium's borders. Moreover, the areas it included vary depending on the time period considered.

Samnium mostly lay on the Apennine area; it was delimited by Latium to the north, by Lucania to the south, by Campania to the west, and by Apulia to the east. The principal cities of the region were Bovaiamom, renamed Bovianum by Latins and Maleventum (Maloenton in Oscan), which was later renamed Beneventum by the Romans. For most of their history the Samnites were landlocked, but during a brief period they controlled parts of both coasts of the Italian peninsula.


(1) Aesernia c. 263-240 BC
AE unit Aesernia
Obverse: head of Vulcan left wearing laureate pileus, tongs behind; VOLCANOM
Reverse: Jupiter in biga right holding thunderbolt and reins; AISERNINO
Ref: HNItaly 430 SNG Copenhagen 256-257 ...
Obverse: Laureate head of Italia left; VITELIV ( = ITALIA) retrograde in Oscan script behind.
Reverse: Soldier (or Mars?) standing facing, head right, left foot on lorica, holding inverted spear in right hand and sword in left; to right, recumbent bull facing, head left; I in exergue.
Ref: Campana group 9b, 141 (D97/R118).