Coins from Gandhara
Gandhara was an ancient region centered at the confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers, bounded by the Sulaiman Mountains on the west and the Indus River on the east.

Gandhara was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 327 BC, it subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire and then the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The region was a major center for Greco-Buddhism under the Indo-Greeks and Gandharan Buddhism under later dynasties. It was also a central location for the spread of Buddhism to Central Asia and East Asia.

The ancient Kingdom of Gandhara was ruled from capitals at Kapisa, Pushkalavati, Taxila, Puruṣapura and in its final days from Udabhandapura on the River Indus.


(1) Abdagases I 50-65 AD
Obverse: King on horseback right, letter before; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥ??AV?ΝΔΙΦEΡΟΑΔΕΛΦΙΔΕШC
Reverse: Zeus with scepter right Gadapharabhradaputrasa maharajasa tradatasa Avadagasasa
Ref: Senior 227.18
(2) Antimachos I 174-165 BCE
Obverse: Draped bust of Antimachos I right, wearing kausia
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΜΑΧΟΥ (Poseidon stg. facing, holding trident and palm branch; in lower r. field, monogram.)
Ref: Mitchiner 124ff., Bopearachchi séri...
(3) Apollodotos I 180-160 BCE
Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ (Apollo standing facing, holding arrow and resting bow on ground)
Reverse: Maharajasa Apaladatasa tratarasa (Tripod), monogram in field
Ref: Mitchiner 209, HGCS 12/120
(4) Azes I 58-12 BCE
Obverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BAΣIΛEΩN MEΓAΛOY AZOY (King mounted on horse right, holding whip, Karoshti letter (ka) in field)
Reverse: Maharajasa rajarajasa mahatasa Ayasa (Athena standing right, holding shield and spear, making benediction gesture), tamga and monogram in field
Ref: HGCS 12/637
(5) Azes I 58-12 BC
AE unit Taxila
Obverse: humped bull right; (MP) above; shi under head; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩИ ΜΕΓΛΟΥ / AZOY
Reverse: lion right; monogram above; Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatasa / Ayasa
Ref: MIG 850, Sen 102.100
(6) Azes I 58-12 BC
Obverse: king on horse rising hand holding whip; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩИ ΜΕΓΛΟΥ / AZOY, san
Reverse: Zeus with rod holding Nike; Maharajasa rajadirajasa mahatasa / Ayasa, monogram / M / dhram
Ref: MIG 854i, Sen 105.340T
(7) Azes I 57-35 BC
Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ / ΑZΟΥ King on camel right, holding ankus
Reverse: Zebu bull (or yak) standing right; monogram below
Ref: Mitchiner 2325 or 2326
(8) Azes II 35 BC - 10 AD
Ref: None provided
(9) Gondophares | Hermaios c. 30-10 BC
Obverse: diademed and draped bust of Hermaios right; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ / EPMAIOY
Reverse: Zeus seated half left, wearing himation, raised hand, holding scepter; Maharaajasa tratarasa Heramayasa (of Great King Hermaios the Savior)
Ref: Senior Hermaios 42aT.1, Mitchiner I...
(10) Huvishka 158-195 AD
Obverse: King riding on elephant right, holding trident
Reverse: Deity standing facing, nimbate, offering diadem with right hand, the diadem ends encircling the tamgha at left
Ref: None provided
(11) Kanishka I 127-150 CE
Obverse: þAO KANηþK[I] (Crowned, diademed king standing facing, holding spear and sacrificing at altar at left)
Reverse: MAO (Lunar deity Mao standing left, holding sword hilt and holding out hand in blessing, lunar crescents on shoulders), tamga in field
Ref: Göbl 774, MAC 3079
(12) Kanishka I 127-152 AD
Obverse: king Kanishka standing left sacrificing over altar, holding scepter; ÞAO KA_NHÞKI
Reverse: god Atar standing left, wreath in right hand; AΘÞO monogram down-left
Ref: Göbl 772, MAC 3082-84
(13) Menandros I 165-130 BC
Obverse: helmeted draped bust right; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHΡOΣ / MENANΔΡOΥ
Reverse: Athena Alkidemos left hurling lightning and holding shield; Mahara_ja_sa Tratarasa / Menadrasa, (HΔIM)
Ref: SNG ANS 879 ff., Bopearachchi 16I, ...
(14) Shapur II 309-379 CE
Obverse: Pahlavi legend (Crowned bust right)
Reverse: Fire altar flanked by attendants, bust right in flames
Ref: SNS III Type Ib1/3a; Göbl Type Ia/6...
(15) Shapur II 309-379 AD
Obverse: Crowned bust right of Shapur II
Reverse: Fire altar with two attendants; bust right within flames
Ref: Göbl 102
(16) Shri Samanta Deva 950-1000 AD
Obverse: Knight on horse
Reverse: Bull
Ref: None provided
(17) Sri Spalapati Deva 750-900 AD
Obverse: Nandi bull reclining left, Nagari Sri Spalapati Deva (Honorable Chief Commander) above
Reverse: Horseman prancing right with lance, remnants of cursive Bactrian legend before
Ref: None provided
(18) Zoilos II 55-35 BCE
Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΖΟΙΛΟΥ (Diademed and draped bust right)
Reverse: Maharajasa tratarasa Jhoilasa (Athena Promachos advancing left, hurling thunderbolt and holding shield), monograms in field
Ref: None provided