The Ianvarivs Collection
This collection focuses on higher grade and finely styled Bronze and Silver coins from the Roman Republic and the Imperatorial era. Even though the collection tries to give a broad representation of Republican coinage, the main focal points are Punic War coinage, Bellum Sociale coinage and the coinage of Marcus Antonius.
The Ianvarivs Collection
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An AE Half-Litra struck 235-231 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Roma or Minerva(?) right, wearing Phrygian helmet.

Reverse: Dog standing right, left forepaw raised in pointing stance; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 12 mm
Die Orientation: 7 H
Weight: 1.37 g
Provenance: Heritage Auctions, Weekly auction 231923 (29 May 2019), Ex Goodman collection, Triton I (2 December 1997), lot 842; Ex Virgil Brand (1862-1926) collection, Part VII (Sotheby's , 25 October 1984, lot 478 (part of). Ex Niklovitz collection, Leo Hamburger (19 October 1925), lot 221.
Crawford 26/4
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An AR Denarius struck 210-209 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 3 H
Weight: 3.86 g
From Brinkman-Debernardi group RRC 53 Rearing Horses Group 1 where they state:

“This variety is believed to be one of the earliest issues of 53/2 based on its consistent presence (though in small numbers) in early hoards where contents included 53/2 examples. It is nearly always found with a loop under the visor, believed to be an attribute of Sicilian origin. There are no symboled siblings for this group.”

Obverse: There is usually a small loop under the visor in front of the forehead. The loop is often discretely represented as a small lump, other times it is clearly a loop.Tufts at the back of the helmet are very small and close together.

Reverse: More so than any other variety in this issue, the horses appear to be rearing up, rather than galloping forward, particularly the far horse, with forelegs farther above the exergue than on other varieties. The legend ROMA is in a trapezoidal frame. Cape style is Flag-like or Waving. There is nearly always a pointed horse's tail visible between the legs. The horses and riders appear rather small and distant, compared to other varieties.

Exceptions: There are rare examples that are clearly of this style but with horses that are galloping broadly forward rather than rearing up."

Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 408 (25 October 2017), lot 368, from the Andrew McCabe Collection. Ex Vecchi 13 (4 September 1998), lot 631.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 1)
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An AR Denarius struck 210-206 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.65 g
Provenance: CNG Electronic auction 433 (28 November 2018), lot 240.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 4)
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An AR Denarius struck 209 BC in Apulia
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) behind.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.36 g
Provenance: Ex Ahlström auktion 66 (9 November 2002), lot 1173.
Sibling to the "Spearhead series", RRC 88/2.
Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 5)
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An Fourree Denarius struck After 206 BC in Uncertain
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left.

Reverse: The Dioscuri, each holding spear, on horseback right; two stars above; ROMA in exergue.

Diameter: 19.5 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.42 g
No notes for this coin
Imitating Crawford 53/2 (Brinkman Group 9)
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An AR Denarius struck 103 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Mars left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with plume and annulet.

Reverse: Two warriors fighting, each armed with sword in right hand and shield in left; the one on the left protects a fallen comrade; the other wears horned helmet; Q•THERM•MF in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 4.02 g
"This coin records the brave deeds of the moneyer’s ancestor and namesake, Quintus Minucius Q. f. L. n. Thermus who was elected consul in 193 and assigned Liguria as his province. From his base in Pisa, he waged war against the Ligurians. His command was extended for the following year, during which time he defeated the Ligurian forces near Pisa. He remained as proconsul in Liguria for 191–190. During this time it appears that he may have won the distinction of the corona civica, the second highest military award to which a Roman could aspire, by saving the life of a fellow citizen in battle through slaying an enemy on a spot not further held by the enemy army that day - this act being depicted on the reverse.

He may also have been the same Thermus who served as military tribune under Scipio in North Africa in 202 BC. Appian relates that about this time there was a cavalry engagement between the forces of Hannibal and those of Scipio near Zama, in which the latter had the advantage. On the succeeding days they had sundry skirmishes until Scipio, learning that Hannibal was very short of supplies and was expecting a convoy, sent the military tribune, [Quintus Minucius] Thermus, by night to attack the supply train. Thermus took a position on the crest of a hill at a narrow pass, where he killed 4,000 Africans, took as many more prisoners, and brought the supplies to Scipio."

Provenance: e-Bay sale (May 2018).
Crawford 319/1
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An AR Quinarius struck 90 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right, club (control mark) in left field.

Reverse: Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm-branch, L PI - SO across fields, FRVGI in exergue.

Diameter: 14 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 2.16 g
"Introduced as part of the currency reform of 211 BC, the silver quinarius was initially tariffed at one half of a denarius and five copper asses. Along with the silver sestertius, it ceased to be regularly minted after about 208 BC and was struck only sporadically thereafter. The periodic strikings that did occur were intended to facilitate trade with the Celtic tribes in Gaul and Britain, who seemed to appreciate the coin's small size and even struck their own imitations of Roman quinarii. The issue of L. Piso Frugi in 90 BC complemented that moneyer's enormous output of denarii, which helped finance the Social war raging in Italy."

Provenance: Naville Numismatics, Auction 42 (22 July 2018), lot 422. Ex Sternberg Auction 18 (20 November 1986), lot 323.
Crawford 340/2e
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An AR Denarius struck 90 BC in Corfinium
Obverse: Laureate head of Italia left, ITALIA upwards behind.

Reverse: Oath-taking scene: Youth kneeling by standard, holding pig at which eight soldiers (four on each side) point their swords, C in exergue.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.64 g
Provenance: Ex Roma Numismatics, Auction XVIII (29 September 2019), lot 842; Ex Baldwin's Auctions Ltd - M&M Numismatics Ltd - Italo Vecchi Ltd, The New York Sale I (3 December 1998), lot 4; Ex 'R. J. Graham' (Paul Tinchant) Collection, J. Schulman, Auction 243 (8 June 1966), lot 1400. Published in A. Campana, La monetazione degli insorti Italici durante la guerra sociale 91-87 A.C. (Modena, 1987)
Campana 63i, D36/R54 (this coin).
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An AR Denarius struck 89 BC in Bovianum
Obverse: Laureate head of Italia left; VITELIV ( = ITALIA) retrograde in Oscan script behind.

Reverse: Soldier (or Mars?) standing facing, head right, left foot on lorica, holding inverted spear in right hand and sword in left; to right, recumbent bull facing, head left; I in exergue.

Diameter: 21 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.75 g
"A new era of violence and conflict visited the Republic when in 91 B.C. Marcus Livius Drusus, a new Tribune with ideas much like the Gracchi brothers, acted as advocate for the urban and rural poor and the indigenous Italian peoples. Not only did he double the size of the senate by promoting 300 leading equites, but he tried to modify grain laws and to address old grievances over land distribution and eligibility for citizenship. Drusus' actions aroused such anger that he was murdered before his term had ended. It was the proverbial straw that broke the camel’s back, and the response among Rome’s Italian allies – who for decades had petitioned fruitlessly for improved status – was to break into revolt. The rebels comprised several Italian tribes, with the Marsi and the Samnites assuming leading roles in what came to be known as the Social War (91-87 B.C.). The capital of their breakaway state was Corfinium, where the rebels established a parallel system modeled on the institutions of the Republic, complete with a senate, consuls and praetors, and the prerogative to issue coins. After a faltering start, the Romans gained traction under the military leadership of Gaius Marius and Lucius Julius Caesar. None the less, the war was costly and destructive, and Caesar hoped hostilities would end when, in 90, he instituted the lex Iulia. The law granted full citizenship to Italian allies who were not actively engaged in making war on Rome. Though it represented progress, not every Italian insurgent was prepared to cease hostilities, and the war continued. Even with extraordinary generals such as Marius, Sulla and Gnaeus Pompey winning victories for the Republic, the war was so burdensome that leaders did not want to pursue it to the bitter end. Romans had been forced to raise more legions than at any time since the invasion of Hannibal, they struck more denarii in 90 than in any other year of the Republic, and from 89 to 87 silver was in such short supply that the purity of the denarius was reduced to slightly less than 95%. Perhaps the deciding factor, however, was a problem far from Italy: the Pontic King Mithradates VI was taking advantage of Rome’s distraction to expand his territories. In the darkest hour of the First Mithradatic War (89-85), Mithradates coordinated the murder in a single night of some 80,000 Romans in Asia Minor, and led an invasion of the province of Asia. With this tremendous concern, the Romans finally met the demands of the rebels for the complete enfranchisement of Italy – a promise that still required another eighteen years to fulfill. "

Provenance: Roma Numismatics Auction XVI (26 September 2018), lot 537. Ex Bolaffi Spa, Auction 29 (30 November 2016), lot 80.
Campana group 9b, 141 (D97/R118).
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An AR Denarius struck 88-87 BC in Military Mint | Campania
Obverse: Bust of Minerva left, wearing aegis and crested helmet, crowned by Victory standing behind her.

Reverse: Soldier(or Mars?), nude to waist, standing facing, helmeted head turned right, holding lance with his right hand, sword in his lowered left hand; on left, four shields attached to a tree, on right, forepart of bull reclining right, in exergue, IIIV.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.72 g
Provenance: Ex Othon Leonardos collection, J. Schulman, Amsterdam (31 May 1927), lot 339. Ex Joseph Martini collection, R. Ratto, Lugano (24 February 1930), lot 247. R. Ratto, Lugano - Fixed Price List VIII (1933), lot 176. Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 70 (16 May 2013), lot 97. Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 92 (23 May 2016), lot 1787. Hess Divo, Auction 338 (3 December 2019), lot 2.
Campana 121, 170c (this specimen, illustr. on pl. 9)
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An AR Denarius Serratus struck 81 BC in Rome
Obverse: Veiled head of Hispania right, HISPAN downward in left field.

Reverse: Togate figure standing left, raising hand, between aquila and fasces. A – POST•A•F – •S•N – ALBIN across fields and in exergue.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 10 H
Weight: 4.13 g
"This is one of the Republican types where a moneyer celebrated the achievements of a famous ancestor. According to Crawford, the reverse "Combining a togate figure on one hand with an eagle and the fasces on the other hand, perhaps simply alludes to civilian and military imperium; taken with the obverse type the reference is doubtless to the Spanish command of L. Postumius Albinus"(Crawford, RRC p. 389). The L. Postumius Albinus referenced was an ancestor of this moneyer who was praetor in 180 BC and given the province of Hispania Ulterior after conquering the Vaccaei and Lusitani, and the levying of troops for this campaign. The reverse of the coin probably depicts several key moments in Roman history. Most likely, it commemorates the raising of troops for the Spanish campaign, but may be related to the efforts of Lucius Postumius Albinus that led to Masinissa and Carthaginian victories. It may also commemorate the Roman expedition against Perseus in the Macedonian war. This denarius inspired the denarius of Hostilius Saserna, struck in 48 BC, publicizing Roman intervention in Gaul"

Provenance: CNG 106 (13 September 2017), lot 651. Ex Deyo Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012), lot 1334. Stack’s (9 December 1992), lot 3177.
Crawford 372/2
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An AR Denarius struck 46 BC in Rome
Obverse: Head of Roma right, wearing ornate helmet; ROMA behind.

Reverse: Scepter, cornucopia on globe, and rudder; T • CARISI below; all within laurel wreath.

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.61 g
The moneyer himself is more or less unknown and the little we know from Cassius Dio may actually be wrong. According to Cassius Dio, Titus Carisius defeated the Astures in Hispania, and took their chief town, Lancia, circa 25 BC; but in consequence of his cruelty and insolence, the Astures took up arms again in 22 BC.

There are coins in which Titus Carisius is identified as triumvir monetalis, and another which mentions Publius Carisius, as legatus and propraetor, together with the word Emerita, apparently referring to the town of Augusta Emerita in Lusitania, which the emperor Augustus established for the emeriti, veterans of the war in Hispania. From this it has been conjectured that the praenomen Titus, assigned to the conqueror of the Astures by Cassius Dio, should instead be Publius.

Provenance: Triton XXII (9 January 2019), lot 912. From the Alan J. Harlan Collection, purchased from Freeman & Sear. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica 33 (5 April 2006), lot 339.
Crawford 464/3c
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An AR Denarius struck 42 BC in Rome
Obverse: Laureate and bearded head of Hercules right.

Reverse: Minerva, helmeted and draped, standing right, holding spear in right hand and Victory in extended left; shield at side, C • VIBIVS downward to right, VARVS downward to left.

Diameter: 19 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.67 g
We know almost nothing about the moneyer apart from his coins. David Sear notes that this is one of the two rare 'types honoring Minerva and Hercules and allude to the forthcoming struggle with the Republican forces led by Brutus and Cassius. The goddess of war, the consort of Jupiter, and the legendary hero are invoked as powerful allies of the Triumvirs in their quest to avenge the murder of Caesar'.

Provenance: Heritage Auctions - Long Beach Expo World & Ancient Coins Signature Auction Session 5 (September 5-9 2019), lot 155. Ex Stack's & Bower's - Coin Galleries: The Numismatic Review and Fixed Price List (May - June, 1960), lot A371.
Crawford 494/37
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An AR Quinarius struck 42 BC in Lugdunum
Obverse: Winged bust of Victory right, with the likeness of Fulvia; III·VIR downwards in left field; R·P·C upwards in right field.

Reverse: Lion walking right; ANTONI above; A - XLI ( = 41, Antony’s age at time of issue) across field; IMP in exergue.

Diameter: 13 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.88 g
Provenance: Numismatik Naumann Auction 73 (6 January 2019), lot 440.
RPC I 513 - Crawford 489/6
(15) Fulvia
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An AE 23 struck 41-40 BC in Fulviana
Obverse: Bust of Fulvia (as Victory) right.

Reverse: Minerva standing left, holding shield and spear; [ΦOYΛOYIANON] in right field, [Z]MEPTOPIΓOΣ / [Φ]IΛΩNIΔOΥ] in two lines in left field.

Diameter: 23 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 7.48 g
"Fulvia (c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Mark Antony. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Though she is more famous for her involvement in Antony's career, many scholars believe that she was politically active with all of her husbands."

"Fulvia married Mark Antony in 44 BC, and became an outspoken defender of his interests in Rome while he campaigned in the East. The city of Eumenia (where this coin was struck) was re-named Fulviana in her honor by Antony's partisans. By 40 BC Fulvia's strident attacks on Octavian caused a great deal of trouble for Antony, who upbraided her for antagonizing Octavian, with whom he was trying to maintain a semblance of cordial relations. Fulvia died at Sicyon shortly thereafter. Sometime afterward these coins struck at "Fulviana" had their ethnic scratched off (this specimen got away), and two countermarks were applied: one may be resolved as Eumeneia; the other as Philonidos, although Zmertorix himself has been suggested). These countermarks suggest that, rather than melting down the coinage of Fulvia and striking new coins, a more expeditious solution was required to keep needed currency in circulation."

Provenance: H.D Rauch, E-Auction 28 (13 September 2018), lot 131.
RPC I 3139
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An AE As struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M•ANT•IMP•TERT•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•III•VIR•RPC - Jugate busts of Mark Antony and Octavia right.

Reverse: M OPPIVS CAPITO PRO PR PRAEF CLASS F C - Galley right, below A.

Diameter: 16 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 3.69 g
"This unusual coin is an example of Mark Anthony's "fleet coinage," a series of bronzes in multiple, clearly marked denominations issued shortly after Antony's marriage alliance with Octavian, the nephew of Julius Caesar. The exact dates, the nature and purpose of the series have been the subject of much debate. David Sear places the commencement of the series in the summer of 38 BC at a still unidentified Eastern mint. The coins were struck in the names of Antony and three of his admirals--L. Sempronius Atratinus, M. Oppius Capito, and L. Calpurnius Bibulus, and falls into two distinct series, "heavy" and "light." Most of the coins depict overlapping, confronting or Janiform portraits of Antony and Octavia, his wife and Octavian's sister. A few also show Octavian, in a clearly subsidiary position. Reverses almost all feature nautical themes--galleys under full sail, or figures in chariots drawn by hippocamps. The admiral's names, themes, and the combination of Greek and Latin letters indicate the coins may have been used to pay sailors in Antony's fleet, and were intended for circulation in his Eastern realm. An intriguing feature of the series is the range of denominations, all Roman, all clearly marked in Greek letters. They range from a large bronze sestertius, previously a small silver coin, marked HS in Latin and the Greek letter-numeral D, or four, indicating a value of four asses. Next comes an unusual denomination, the tressis, or three asses, marked G; then the dupondius, two asses, marked B; and the as, marked A. The series is completed by two fractions, a semis and quadrans, marked S and with three dots (three unciae) respectively. "

"M. Oppius Capito was Antony’s senior naval officer, stationed at the main naval base at Piraeus. His coins are found distributed around central Greece, and were most likely struck at Piraeus. His coins are found in two series, a heavy and a light and it has been suggested that some were struck at Tarentum where part of Antony’s fleet was based during the joint action against Sextus Pompey in 37-36 BC"

"The coin illustrated here is an as, marked A, with jugate portraits of Antony and Octavia on the obverse, a galley under sail on the reverse. It falls into the "light" series, perhaps issued a year after the first release of the coins, on a lighter standard, in the name of Antony and Oppius Capito. Although this experimental coinage was short-lived and very rare today, it is interesting to note that the great currency reform started by Octavian, after he had taken the name Augustus and become the first Emperor of Rome, resulted in a bronze coinage using exactly the same denominations as Anthony's fleet issues."

Provenance: Private purchase (August 2017).
RPC I 1470
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An AE Tressis struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M•ANT•IMP•TERT•COS•DESIG•ITER•ET•TER• III•VIR•R•P•C - Conjoined bare heads of Mark Antony and Octavian right, facing draped bust of Octavia left.

Reverse: M•OPPIVS•CAPITO•PRO•PR•PRAEF•CLASS•F•C - Three galleys under sail to right. Γ (Gamma) and Triskeles below.

Diameter: 32 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 25.78 g
No notes for this coin
RPC I 1463
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An AE Sestertius struck 38-37 BC in Achaea
Obverse: M ANT • IMP TER COS DES ITER ET TER III VIR R• P • C •, bare head of Antony right vis-à-vis head of Octavia left.

Reverse: M • OPPIVS • CAPITIO • P[R) • PR • PRAEF • CLASS • F • C • - Mark Antony and Octavia in quadriga of hippocamps; in l. field, HS and below, Δ and astragalos.

Diameter: 40 mm
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 30.16 g
Provenance: Aste Bolaffi, Auction 33 (29 November 2018), lot 310.
RPC I 1462
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An AE Semis struck 38-37 BC in Syria
Obverse: M•ANT•TER•COS•DES• ITER•ET•TER•III•VIR•R•P•C, bare head right.

Reverse: L•BIBVLVS•M•F•PR•DESIG, quinquereme right, with three oars and stern ending in boar's head left.

Diameter: 20 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 3.61 g

Provenance: Private purchase (May 2018).

RPC I 4092
(20) Q. Caecilius Niger | C. Heius Pamphilius
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An AE As struck 34-31 BC in Corinth
Obverse: Head of Aphrodite right, hair pulled back in ponytail, wearing pearl necklace - CORINT below bust.

Reverse: Bellerophon mounted on Pegasus prancing to right, preparing to strike with his spear the Chimaera at his right. - L • CAECIL • NIGR/ C • HEIO P AM above, II VIR in exergue

Diameter: 22 mm
Die Orientation: 9 H
Weight: 6.55 g
Provenance: Nomos AG - Obolos 14 (15 December 2019), lot 335.
RPC I 1128