Coins from Lycian Dynasts
Arriving at the southern coast of Anatolia in 546 BC, the army of Harpagus encountered no problem with the Carians and their immediate Greek neighbors and alien populations, who submitted peacefully. In the Xanthus Valley an army of Xanthians sallied out to meet them, fighting determinedly, although vastly outnumbered. Driven into the citadel, they collected all their property, dependents and slaves into a central building, and burned them up. Then, after taking an oath not to surrender, they died to a man fighting the Persians, foreshadowing and perhaps setting an example for Spartan conduct at the Battle of Thermopylae a few generations later.

a century later than the conqueror of Lycia. The next logical possibility is that Kheriga's father, Arppakhu, was a descendant of the conqueror. In opposition, Keen reconstructs the dynastic sequence from coin inscriptions as follows.[14] Kheriga had two grandfathers, Kuprlli and Kheriga. The younger Kheriga was the successor of Kuprlli. The latter's son, therefore, Kheziga, who was Kheriga's uncle, must have predeceased Kuprlli. Arppakhu is listed as regnant on two other inscriptions, but he did not succeed Kuprlli. He must therefore have married a daughter of Kuprlli, and have also predeceased the long-lived Kuprlli. The latter then was too old to reign de facto. On the contemporaneous deaths of both him and his son-in-law, Kheriga, named after his paternal grandfather, acquired the throne. Kuprlli was the first king recorded for certain (there was an earlier possible) in the coin legends. He reigned approximately 480-440. Harpagos was not related by blood. The conqueror, therefore, was not the founder of the line, which was not Harpagid. An Iranian family, however, producing some other Harpagids, did live in Lycia and was of sufficient rank to marry the king's daughter. As to whether the Iranian family were related to any satrap, probably not. Herodotus said that Satrapy 1 (the satrapies were numbered) consisted of Ionia, Magnesia, Aeolia, Caria, Lycia, Milya, and Pamphylia, who together paid a tax of 400 silver talents. This satrapy was later broken up and recombined.[15] Keen hypothesizes that since Caria had responsibility for the King's Highway through Lycia, Lycia and Caria were a satrapy.[16] The Lycian monarchy Lycian dignitary in Achaemenid style, at the Karaburun tomb near Elmalı, Lycia, circa 475 BC.[17] The Achaemenid Persian policy toward Lycia was hands-off.[18] There was not even a satrap stationed in the country. The reason for this tolerance after such a determined initial resistance is that the Iranians were utilizing another method of control: the placement of aristocratic Persian families in a region to exercise putative home rule. The term "dynast" has come into use among English-speaking scholars, but that is not a native term. The Lycian inscriptions indicate the monarch was titled xñtawati, more phonetically khñtawati. The holders of this title can be traced in coin legends, having been given the right to coin. Lycia had a single monarch, who ruled the entire country from a palace at Xanthos. The monarchy was hereditary, hence the term "dynast." It was utilized by Persia as a means of transmitting Persian policy. It must have been they who put down local resistance and transported the prisoners to Persepolis, or ordered them transported. Some members of the dynasty were Iranian, but mainly it was native Lycian. If the survivors of 546 were in fact herdsmen (speculation), then all the Xanthian nobility had perished, and the Persians must have designated some other Lycian noble, whom they could trust.

Kimon finally persuaded the Lycian to join the Athenian alliance, the Delian League during his expedition circa 470 BC. As the power of Athens weakened and Athens and Sparta fought the Peloponnesian wars (431–404 BC), the majority of Lycian cities defaulted from the Delian League, with the exception of Telmessos and Phaselis. In 429 BC, Athens sent an expedition against Lycia to try to force it to rejoin the League. This failed when Lycia's leader Gergis/Kheriga of Xanthos defeated Athenian General Melesander. Persia held Lycia until it was conquered by Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon during 334–333 BC.

Lycian Dynasts

(1) Kherei 440-410 BC
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena left
Reverse: Head of Kherei right, wearing bashlyk, in pelleted round border within incuse circle.
Ref: Falghera -; SNG Copenhagen Suppl. -...
(2) Lycia 480/470-430 BC
Obverse: Pegasos left; •
Reverse: triskeles within dot circle
Ref: Cf. Falghera 73 (stater, square inc...
(3) Mithrapata 390-370 BC
Obverse: Facing scalp of lion
Reverse: Triskeles within incuse square
Ref: Müseler VII.91-2, SNG Copenhagen Su...
(4) Perikles 380-360 BC
Obverse: lionskin facing
Reverse: triskeles, laureate bust of Apollo facing ΠEP_IKΛE (in lycian script)
Ref: SNG Copenhagen -; SNG v. Aulock -. ...
(5) Uvug 470-440 BC
Obverse: Forepart of winged human-headed bull right
Reverse: Male? head right; OFOV (Uvug) within incuse square
Ref: Babelon, Traité, 315 ff var.; SNG v...
(6) Vekhssere I 440-430 BC
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Reverse: Laureate head of Apollo right; diskeles to right; all within incuse square
Ref: Müseler V.11; Vismara, Wekhssere, 6...