The Penny denomination — Variants: Short-cross penny - Long-cross penny
The Penny was originally an anglo-saxon coin denomination introduced by King Offa of Mercia ~785 AD. With a weight of 1.3-1.5g, they were similar in size and weight to the continental 'denier' and anglo-saxon 'sceat'.

Throughout the period of the Kingdom of England, from its beginnings in the 9th century, the penny was produced in silver. Pennies of the same nominal value, one 240th of a pound sterling, were in circulation continuously until the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

Various designs were struck during the centuries; In 1180 a new style of coin, the short-cross penny was introduced. It was replaced in 1247 by the long-cross penny.
Penny|Short-cross penny|Long-cross penny
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An AR Short-cross penny struck 978 - 1016 AD in Winchester
Obverse:

Reverse:

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
No notes for this coin
No references provided for this coin
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An AR Long-cross penny struck 1299-1301 AD in London
Obverse:

Reverse:

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 0 H
Weight: 1.35 g
No notes for this coin
Spink 1408
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An AR Long-cross penny struck 1216-1272 AD in Canterbury
Obverse: HENRICVS REX III / Crowned facing bust, sceptre in right hand

Reverse: ROB ERT ONC ANT /

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.33 g
Moneyer Robert
5c2
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An AR Long-cross penny struck 1247-1279 AD in London
Obverse:

Reverse:

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: 1.47 g
Moneyer Henri
5c
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An AR Long-cross penny struck 1216-1272 AD in London
Obverse: hENRICUS REX:III / crowned facing bust

Reverse: NIC/OLC/ONL/VND / voided long cross, with trefoil in each quarter

Diameter: -
Die Orientation: -
Weight: -
From The Brussels Hoard Type 3d1
No references provided for this coin
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An AR Penny struck 1422-1427 in Calais
Obverse: HENRICVS REX ANGLIE, Crowned bust of Henry facing, annulets in fields

Reverse: VILLA CALIS, Long cross, three pellets in each quadrant, an anulet also in the 1st and 4th quadrants

Diameter: 18 mm
Die Orientation: 12 H
Weight: 0.8 g

King of England and disputed King of France
AR Penny, Calais mint

S 1845