Alexander Jannaeus - Basileus of Mamleḵeṯ haḤašmōna'īm from 103 BC to 73 BC
Alexander Jannaeus was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC. A son of John Hyrcanus, he inherited the throne from his brother Aristobulus I, and married his brother's widow, Queen Salome Alexandra. From his conquests to expand the kingdom to a bloody civil war, Alexander's reign has been generalized as cruel and oppressive with never ending conflict.

The coinage of Alexander Jannaeus is characteristic of the early Jewish coinage in that it avoided human or animal representations, in opposition to the surrounding Greek, and later Roman types of the period. Jewish coinage instead focused on symbols, either natural, such as the palm tree, the pomegranate or the star, or man-made, such as the Temple, the Menorah, trumpets or cornucopia.

Alexander Jannaeus was the first of the Jewish kings to introduce the "eight-ray star" or "eight-spoked wheel" symbol, in his bronze "Widow's mite" coins, in combination with the widespread Seleucid numismatic symbol of the anchor. Depending on the make, the star symbol can be shown with straight spokes connected to the outside circle, in a style rather indicative of a wheel. On others, the spokes can have a more "flame-like" shape, more indicative of the representation of a star within a diadem.
Alexander Jannaeus
King Alexander Jannaeus of Hasmonean Kingdom

(1) Alexander Jannaeus 103-76 BC
Obverse: Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
Reverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Ref: Hendin 1145
(2) Alexander Jannaeus 95-76 BC
Obverse: star of eight rays surrounded by a diadem, between each ray a letter 'Yehonatan the King'
Reverse: Seleucid anchor; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY
Ref: Hendin 1150
(3) Alexander Jannaeus 78-76 BC
Obverse: star of eight rays in beaded border 'Yehonatan the King' off flan
Reverse: anchor in circle, BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY
Ref: Hendin 1153
(4) Alexander Jannaeus 78-76 BC
Obverse: star of eight rays in beaded border 'Yehonatan the King' around
Reverse: anchor in circle; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY
Ref: Hendin 1153
(5) Alexander Jannaeus 78-76 BC
Obverse: star of six rays, within circle of dots (off flan), barbaric blundered imitation of Aramaic legend around
Reverse: anchor within circle blundered barbaric imitation of Greek legend around
Ref: Hendin 1153
(6) Alexander Jannaeus 103-76 BC
Obverse: Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
Reverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Ref: Hendin 1145
(7) Alexander Jannaeus 103-76 BC
Obverse: Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
Reverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Ref: Hendin 1145
(8) Alexander Jannaeus 103-76 BC
Obverse: Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
Reverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Ref: Hendin 1145