Harran - A settlement in Mesopotamia and Osroene also known as Carrhae - Hellenopolis
Harran was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

In Roman times, Harran was known as Carrhae, and was the location of the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BCE, in which the Parthians, commanded by general Surena, defeated a large Roman army under the command of Crassus, who was killed. Centuries later, the emperor Caracalla was murdered here, probably at the instigation of Macrinus (217). In the 3rd century the region was a frontier province of the Roman empire, being the location for major wars between Rome and Persia. The emperor Galerius was defeated nearby by the Parthians' successors, the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, in 296 CE.

The city remained in Roman hands until 609/610 CE, when the Persian general Shahrbaraz completed conquering of Oshroene. The city returned to Roman control after the successful offensive of emperor Heraclius in 620s. A few years later, in AH 19 (640), it was conquered by the Muslim Arab general 'Iyāḍ b. Ghanm.

Modern location: Ruins

(1) Caracalla 215-217 AD
Obverse: laureate head right; AVT·K·M·A·_·ANTΩNEINOC__·C_EB·
Reverse: eagle facing, head right, wreath in beak, bucranium below; ·_ΔHMAPX·EΞ·_VΠA·TO·Δ_·
Ref: Prieur 820