Coins from Kingdom of Pergamon
When the Kingdom of Lysimachus collapsed in 281 BC, his general Philetaerus became an independent ruler, and founder of the Attalid dynasty. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly, though he did not declare himself king. The royal title was taken in 238 BC by his successor Attalus I, after defeating the Galatians.

The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC.

The last Attalid king, Attalus III died without issue and bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC.

Kingdom of Pergamon

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