France originated as West Francia (Francia Occidentalis), the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun (843). A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty. The territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum ("king of the Franks") well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France ("King of France") was Philip II, in 1190.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year later and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted (except for the Hundred Days in 1815) until the French Revolution of 1848.
Reverse: +VRBS AIDCCSuncertain symbol, Fulk monogram at center
Die Orientation: 11 H
Weight: 0.77 g
Count of Anjou, France
AR Denier, Angers mint
Dated to the reign of Fulk IV-Fulk V, some have argued as late as the succeeding Geoffrey V Plantagenet
Fulk V would go on to be a crusader under the Knights Templar and eventually King of Jerusalem from 1131-1143
These people are possibly my Great x28, x27, and x26 Grandfathers respectively.
Obverse: "Count Fulk"
Reverse:"City of Angers"
Die Orientation: -
Reverse: +XP'C • VIИCIT • XP'C • RЄGNAT • XP'C • IMPЄRAT (rosette stops), cross tréflée and feuillue; in center of cross, • within quadrilobe; all within quadrilobe, trefoil fleurée at end of each arc; trilobe in spandrels.
Die Orientation: 1 H
Weight: 3.76 g
Provenance: Triton XXV Session 5 (25 January 2022), lot 455.