Ghazna - A settlement in Aria also known as Alexandria Oppidum
Ghazna is a city in Afghanistan, which was founded as a small market town in antiquity. In the 6th century BC, it was conquered by the Achaemenid king Cyrus II and incorporated into the Persian empire. The city was subsequently incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great in 329 BC, and called Alexandria Oppidum.

In 683, Arab armies brought Islam to the region. Yaqub Saffari from Zaranj conquered the city in the late 9th century. For nearly two hundred years (977–1163) the city was the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavid Empire, which encompassed much of what is today Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Eastern Iran and Rajasthan.

The Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from Indian princes and temples. Although the city was sacked in 1151 by the Ghorid Ala'uddin, it became their secondary capital in 1173, and subsequently flourished once again. Between 1215 and 1221, Ghazni was ruled by the Khwarezmid Empire, during which time it was destroyed by the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan's son Ögedei Khan.

Modern location: Ghazni, Afghanistan

(1) Genghis Khan 1206 - 1227 AD
Obverse: Defender of the Faith, Commander of the Faithful
Reverse: The Just, Supreme Khan
Ref: Tye 329