Chalcedon - A settlement in Bithynia also known as Kalchedon
Chalcedon - also known as Kalchedon - was an ancient maritime town located almost directly opposite Byzantium. It originated as a Megarian colony in 685 BCE. The colonists from Megara settled on a site that was viewed in antiquity as so obviously inferior to that visible on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus that the Persian general Megabazus allegedly remarked that Chalcedon's founders must have been blind.

Nevertheless, trade thrived in Chalcedon; the town flourished and built many temples, including one to Apollo, which had an oracle. It was partly destroyed by Mithridates. The governor of Bithynia, Cotta, had fled to Chalcedon for safety along with thousands of other Romans. Three thousand of them were killed, sixty ships captured, and four ships destroyed in Mithridates' assault on the city. During the Empire, Chalcedon recovered, and was given the status of a free city. It fell under the repeated attacks of the barbarian hordes who crossed over after having ravaged Byzantium.

Chalcedon suffered somewhat from its proximity to the new imperial capital at Constantinople. First the Byzantines and later the Ottoman Turks used it as a quarry for building materials for Constantinople's monumental structures. It came definitively under Ottoman rule under Orhan Gazi a century before the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople.

Modern location: Kadıköy, Turkey

(1) Byzantion | Lysimachos c. 125-75 BC
Obverse: Head of the deified Alexander with Ammon's horns right
Reverse: Athena Nikephoros seated left; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΛYΣIMAXOY, monogram (ΠΩΛYB) to left; BY below throne, trident in exergue
Ref: Marinescu 508 (O. 211 R. 483) issue...
(2) Chalcedon | Lysimachos c. 250-100 BC
Obverse: Head of the deified Alexander with diadem and Ammon's horns right
Reverse: Athena enthroned left, holding Nike with wreath, transverse spear, resting hand on shield; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΛYΣIMAXOY // AΣ / KAΛXA
Ref: Marinescu 115 (O. 44 R. 104) issue ...
(3) Septimius Severus 193-211 AD
AE unit Chalcedon
Obverse: draped and cuirassed bust right; AY K Λ CEΠ CEY(HP)OC Π
Reverse: Apollo holding patera and branch; KAΛXAΔO_NIΩN
Ref: obverse: SNG von Aulock 496, otherw...