The Denier denomination
The denier was a medieval denomination named after the earlier denarius. It was originally a Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century. In English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny.

Its appearance represents the end of gold coinage, which, at the start of Frankish rule, had either been Byzantine or pseudo-imperial. Silver would be the basis for Frankish coinage from then on.

The denier was minted in France and parts of the Italian peninsula for the whole of the Middle Ages, in states such as the patriarchate of Aquileia, the Kingdom of Sicily, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Siena, and the crusader state Kingdom of Jerusalem, among others.

(1) Bohemond III | Bohemond IV c. 1149-1233 AD
Obverse: BOAMANDVS: , helmeted bust left, crescent in front star behind
Reverse: ANTIOCHIA around cross downward crescent in 2nd quarter
Ref: None provided
(2) Fulk IV | Fulk V 11-12th Century
Obverse: +FVLCO COMES, Cross at center with Alpha and Omega in the 3rd and 4th quadrants
Reverse: +VRBS AIDCCSuncertain symbol, Fulk monogram at center
Ref: Roberts 4114
(3) Henry II of Cyprus 1285 - 1306 AD
Obverse: Cross pattée in a solid ring with inscription around it. Solid ring on the rim.
Reverse: Lion of Cyprus facing left and in a ring. Inscription around it and another ring on the rim.
Ref: None provided
(4) Hugh V | Duke of Burgundy 1305-1315 AD
AR Denier Unknown mint
Ref: None provided
(5) Richard I 1172-1189
Obverse: +|RICA|RDVS|ω.in two lines across field, cross above, ω below.
Reverse: +AQVITANIE, Cross pattee within inner circle.
Ref: Elias 4; Poey d
(6) Richard I 1189-1199 AD
AR Denier Poitou Comte
Obverse: + RICARDVS REX; around Cross
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines
Ref: B. 424; P.A. 2505; Elias 8; D. 920